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Darwin’s Dilemma: The Soul

Harun Yahya

About the Author

Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary education in Ankara, he studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.

Harun Yahya's works, translated into 57 different languages, constitute a collection for a total of more than 45,000 pages with 30,000 illustrations.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed prophets who fought against their peoples' lack of faith. the Prophet's (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) seal on his books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of irreligious ideologies and to have the "last word," so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who attained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues such as Allah's existence and unity and the Hereafter; and to expose irreligious systems' feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.

Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken in Mauritius), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many people recovering faith in Allah and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. the author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for Allah's right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of Allah, render an invaluable service.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological chaos, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. the success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. by the will of Allah, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.

First English Edition in January 2008

Translated by Carl Nino Rossini

Edited by Tam Mossman

Published by:


Talatpasa Mah. Emirgazi Caddesi Ibrahim Elmas İş Merkezi

A Blok Kat 4 Okmeydani - Istanbul / Turkey

Phone: (+90 212) 222 00 88

Printed and bound by Secil Ofset in Istanbul

100 Yil Mah. MAS-SIT Matbaacilar Sitesi 4. Cadde No: 77


Phone: (+90 212) 629 06 15

All translations from the Qur'an are from the Noble Qur'an: A New Rendering of its Meaning in English by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH. -

To the Reader

A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation – and therefore, Allah's existence – over the last 150 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read only one of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.

All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite readers to learn Allah's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning Allah's verses are explained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. the books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.

This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and experiences to one another.

In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of Allah. the author's books are all extremely convincing. for this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to read these books.

We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.

In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart.



Materialism Has Collapsed and Disappeared

The External World behind Quantum Physics

The Brain Is Not the Source of Personal Identity

Darwin’s Dilemma: The Soul

The Perception of Time and the Fact of Destiny


Appendix: The Deception of Evolution


In the early 20th century, scientists discovered something new: that matter was not as we had imagined it to be. Matter was not solid. Matter had no colors. It gave off no smells, sounds or image. Matter was simply energy. the chair you sit in, the table you lean on, the house you live in, your dogs, the people around you, buildings, space, stars—in short, the whole material world exists as a form of energy.

In the face of this unexpected discovery, all philosophies constructed on the basis of matter therefore suffered a scientific collapse. Science revealed the proof of something inside the human body but not belonging to it, something that perceived the entire physical world, but was not itself physical: The human soul.

The soul could not be explained in any way in terms of materialist claims. Darwinism, which produced countless fictitious tales regarding the imaginary evolution of species, remained silent in the face of the existence of the soul. Because the soul was not matter, it was a metaphysical concept. and metaphysics was something that materialists were completely unable to accept, because metaphysics did away with all the unconscious events, coincidences and random processes that they had deified. Metaphysics submitted evidence of a conscious creation, in other words, of the existence of Allah. That, in any case, was why materialists had been denying the existence of the soul ever since the days of Ancient Greece.

This struggle, which had persisted since Ancient Greece right up to the present, now became meaningless because there is an entity that makes a human being human, that lets you say, “This is me.” That, in other words, is your soul: It exists, and it belongs to Allah. Science definitively proved that the human soul observed all things as they were presented to it and that there could be no reference to any reality beyond these perceived images. to put it another way, it openly declared that the only absolute Entity was Allah.

This proof by science is of importance in convincing minds that deify materialist philosophy. in fact, though, all who possess reflection and intellect are aware that they possess a sublime soul. Anyone who can reason at all will understand that it is the soul that rejoices, thinks, decides, judges, experiences joy and excitement, loves, shows compassion, gets anxious, enjoys the taste of an apple, takes pleasure from listening to music, builds planes, raises skyscrapers and constructs laboratories in which it examines itself.

If human beings are possessed of souls, they cannot have been created haphazardly. There is a purpose behind their presence in this world. All people bear a soul that belongs to Allah and are being tested in this lifetime, after which they will be held responsible for all their thoughts and deeds. There is no randomness or aimlessness in life. There are no chance events, as Darwinists maintain. Everything has been created by the will of Allah to become part of the tests to which we are subjected. in this life, which will end in death, the only thing that will be left behind is the body. the soul, on the other hand, will live for all eternity in the Hereafter, which is its true abode.

These are great glad tidings for anyone who realizes he has a soul and is able to appreciate its Creator. Darwinists, however, will continue to refuse this reality with all their means and maintain that they do not possess a soul. They will continue to refuse to accept that they will one day enter the presence of Almighty Allah, Whose existence they denied throughout the course of their lives. They will continue to regard themselves as randomly formed collections of atoms and will keep on dismissing the miraculous human consciousness that has discovered DNA, investigated the structure of the atom and has been amazed by the innermost workings of the cell.

The human soul is a terrible dilemma for Darwin and the supporters who came after him. It is the basic evidence which they cannot explain, which they cannot refute and cannot resolve. Allah has vanquished them by providing proof, of a scientific kind that they cannot deny: The insubstantiality of matter. in the face of this, any objections to the soul’s existence they may come up with are invalid and meaningless.

In His verses in the Qur’an, Allah tells us:

Who could be further astray than those who call on other things besides Allah, which will not respond to them until the Day of Resurrection and which are unaware of their prayers? When mankind is gathered together, they will be their enemies and will reject their worship. (Surat al-Ahqaf, 5-6)

Darwinists and materialists need to realize that the only absolute Entity is Allah. Confronted by this truth, all hollow, empty deceptions and superstitious faiths fall into an insuperable quandary. Allah has enfolded all things with His Sublime Might. All things belong to Him and are under His control. Denying creation and the existence of the soul cannot alter these facts one iota.

This book considers one of the materialists’ biggest errors, the scientific evidence exposing this error, Darwinism’s dilemma in the face of this, and the certain existence of the soul. the world that the soul perceives is merely an illusion, a phantom and the sole absolute Entity Who rules the entire universe is Allah, Ruler and Lord of the Earth and sky. Henceforth, those with unclouded minds who understand this fact will look at the world from a different perspective and realize that Allah is their only savior. in order to attain salvation in the Hereafter, their true life, people need to behave in the light of that understanding.

Materialism Has Collapsed and Dissappeard

Materialism: The Superstition of an Age

Ancient Greek thinkers imagined that all bodies consisted of tiny particles called atoms. They maintained that these atoms shaped the universe and all living things, without intention or direction and without being subjected to any conscious intervention. According to this belief, matter was timeless and eternal, and nothing beyond matter could exist. Supernatural events that intervened in entities’ behavior and altered their structures was sheer superstition, unacceptable. All axioms and principles were based on the assumption that matter was an absolute reality.

Since matter was eternal, the universe must be eternal as well, and that idea served as the foundation of atheism. If the entire universe had existed for all time, then according to the perversion of materialist belief, it was impossible for matter and the universe to ever have been created.

According to materialists, the universe was eternal, and therefore, there was no purpose or special creation in it. Materialists imagined that all the balances, equilibrium, harmony and order in the universe were solely the results of chance. They claimed that everything came into being as the result of unconscious atoms assembling at random. and no matter how much complexity, balance and magnificent regularity exhibited by the external world, these were still the result of purposeless coincidences.

Materialist minds had held this preconception or idée fixe ever since the days of Ancient Greece. Since materialism rejected the concepts of “purpose” and “creation” to the universe, it also denied the existence of a Creator. to be strictly accurate, materialism was a philosphy which had been formulated to reject Allah. Many movements, ideologies and intellectual systems that rejected belief in Allah were, similarly, rooted in materialism. in other words, materialism was the most influential religion of atheism.

Stanley Sobottka, a professor of physics from Virginia University, describes the perversion of materialism in these terms:

If we believe this way [believe in materialism], we must conclude that everything, including ourselves and all of life, is governed completely by physical law. Physical law is the only law governing our desires, our hopes, our ethics, our goals, and our destinies. Matter and energy must be our primary focus, the object of all of our desires and ambitions. Specifically, this means that our lives must be focused on acquiring material goods (including bodies), or at least rearranging or exchanging them, in order to produce the maximum material satisfaction and pleasure. We must expend all of our energy in this quest, for there can be no other goal. and in all of this, we have no choice, because we are totally governed by physical law. We may feel trapped by these beliefs and desires, but we cannot shake them. They totally dominate us.

A succinct, personalized, summary statement of materialist philosophy is, “I am a body.” 1

In Ancient Greece, materialists held that religious adherents were illogically opposed to science. for that reason, materialists throughout history have sought to give the impression that belief in Allah and science are incompatible. in fact, however, science has increasingly showed evidence of His existence, and those discoveries worked against the materialist mindset that fought against belief in Allah.

This included Darwinism, of course. the struggle against Darwinism is basically an attack on its materialist origins.

Throughout the course of history, materialists claimed that entities consisted merely of assemblages of atoms, and that the human brain was nothing more than a network of neurons. They were unable to account for the human mind, and attempted to explain it as the electro-chemical interaction between its neurons.

Materialists had no qualms about describing themselves as animals or machines. They denied that they had the status of entities with consciousness and claimed that they had come into existence by chance. Yet this was a grave misconception and a lie fabricated in order to deny Allah.

In the words of the quantum particle physicist Stephen M. Barr, of the Bartol Research Institute at the University of Delaware, these people who believed in the absolute reality of matter were almost no different from the pagans of the past. Just like the ancient pagans, materialists describe humans as essentially sub-human. Pagans deified matter; materialists did the same thing by denying the soul and reducing everything to the level of matter. Pagans declared that events were determined by the orbits of the planets and the stars; materialists claimed that they were controlled by the ebb and flow of the hormones in their brains. Pagans prostrated themselves to worship in front of false animal deities; materialists claimed that they were no more than animals themselves. 2

Amit Goswami, a professor of physics at the University of Oregon’s Institute for Theoretical Science, describes the fundamental logic with which materialists sought to indoctrinate people:

We are conditioned to believe that we are machines—that all our actions are determined by the stimuli we receive and by our prior conditioning. as exiles, we have no responsibility, no choice; our free will is a mirage.#3

The fact is, however, that Allah created man. and man is not an entity devoid of purpose and responsibility. Contrary to what materialists claim, man is not an unthinking machine. Man is an entity with a responsibility to Allah and will be held to account for all his deeds in the Hereafter.

The materialist logic that seeks to divert people away from this fact has been evident at all times throughout history, ever since the days of Ancient Greece. Yet it was only in the 19th century that this belief spread and became established as a settled intellectual system. in the 19th century, the great majority of classical physicists thought that the fundamental components of matter were inanimate and indivisible atoms, just like tiny billiard balls, and that the perfect regularity and complexity in the universe were the result of the random motion and compounds of these atoms. in their view, everything on Earth, life included, came into being by accident through a series of blind, unconscious processes. Atoms established unreasoning unions and gave rise to the world we see with all its perfect features—and also to ourselves, with our minds and consciousness.

By setting out these claims, materialists sought to indoctrinate people with the idea that man was not made by a Creator and that apart from matter, nothing existed. the fact is, though, that man was obviously created with perfect systems and mechanisms, through an extraordinary mind and intelligence. There were no unconscious processes on Earth of the kind suggested by materialists, and no unthinking structures and systems arose as a consequence. Everything displays a complexity and sublimity that often exceeds the capacity of human minds to comprehend, and so perfect are these details that they exclude all possibility of chance. the Earth itself reveals proofs of creation.

Despite these facts, however, materialists insisted in their claims that unconscious atoms were the basis of all things. So what, according to materialists, were these atoms, the source of all else that exists?

In one respect, we now know that the atom is an almost complete void, and that is a proven fact. We can explain this as follows: If you imagine the atomic nucleus, comprised of neutrons and protons, as a pinhead just 1 millimeter (0.039 of an inch) in diameter, then an electron revolving around that nucleus does so at a distance of 100 meters (328 feet)! 4

In this considerable volume between the nucleus and the electrons, the only thing that exists is empty space. This 100-meter void is literally “empty.” That is why in one sense, experts are justified in regarding the atom as an empty vacuum. in the words of the British physicist Sir Arthur Eddington, matter is mostly “ghostly empty space.” #5 to be more precise, it is 99.9999999% empty.

Fred Alan Wolf, a particle physicist at the University of California describes this fact regarding the atom:

If you stop to think about it at all, you might realize that life on planet as we live it is really a surprise, considering just how empty the universe really is. in fact, the universe is more than 99 percent nothing! and considering that the universe is still expanding at an alarming rate, it’s getting to be more nothing than it ever was!

So while looking out at it leaves us in awe, when we consider the microworld of subatomic matter, it’s even worse. There, nothing exists in spades, so to speak. 6

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was known that there was a giant empty space inside the atom, which was regarded as the smallest component of all things, and that this space contained a nucleus and electrons revolving around it. However, only the general lines of matter—the atom and its fundamental parts—were understood. So what was there in the atomic nucleus, in a space just 10-18 kilometer in size, or one millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a kilometer? That was something unknown to scientists.

In the 1960s, a most significant scientific discovery was made. It was realized that in the depths of the proton, there were particles known as quarks. These extraordinarily minute particles caused protons to have a positive electric charge, and neutrons to have no charge. Research eventually revealed the presence of a gloriously complex world in what comprised just 0.0000001 of the atom.

The more that materialists descended into the depths of the atom and the more extraordinary details they saw in matter’s smallest building block, the more they sought some solution by developing their theory in another direction. in order for the entire universe to form unconsciously and haphazardly, they had to explain how not just atoms but also the world inside the atom,—in other words, the motions of sub-atomic particles—had come into being. the idea that matter was the only thing that existed survived in the materialist mind, until the discovery of quantum physics.

Quantum Physics: The Discovery That Scientifically Demolished Materialism

. . . there’s enough in the way the physical universe is constructed to indicate the presence of something called soul. Where I begin looking for this soul is in the nature of quantum mechanics, or quantum physics, which says that there may be spiritual underpinnings to the physical world. 7

—Fred Alan Wolf, the well-known particle physicist at University of California

According to Isaac Newton, light was a flow of a substance known as “corpuscles.” the basis of the traditional Newtonian physics—which was accepted until the discovery of quantum physics—was that light consisted entirely of a collection of particles. However, James Clerk Maxwell, a 19th-century physicist, suggested that light demonstrated wave action. Quantum theory reconciled this greatest debate in physics.

In 1905, Albert Einstein claimed that light possessed quanta, or small packets of energy. These energy packets were given the name photons. Although described as particles, photons could be observed to behave in the wave motion proposed by Maxwell in the 1860s. Therefore, light was a transitional phenomenon between wave and particle 8—a state of affairs that displayed a major contradiction in terms of Newtonian physics.

Immediately after Einstein, Max Planck, a German physicist, investigated light and astonished the entire scientific world by determining that it was both a wave and a particle. According to this idea, which he proposed under the name of quantum theory, energy was disseminated in the form of interrupted and discrete packets, rather than being straight and constant.

In a quantum event, light exhibited both particle-like and wave-like properties. the particle known as the photon was accompanied by a wave in space. in other words, light moved like a wave through space, but behaved as an active particle when it encountered an obstacle. to express it another way, it adopted the form of energy until encountering an obstacle, at which time it assumed the form of particles, as if it were composed of tiny material bodies reminiscent of grains of sand.

After Planck, this theory was further expanded by scientists such as Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac and Wolfgang Pauli. Each was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discoveries.

About this new discovery regarding the nature of light, Amit Goswami says this:

When light is seen as a wave, it seems capable of being in two (or more) places at the same time, as when it passes through the slits of an umbrella and produces a diffraction pattern; when we catch it on a photographic film, however, it shows up discretely, spot by spot, like a beam of particles. So light must be both a wave and a particle. Paradoxical, isn’t it? at stake is one of the bulwarks of the old physics: unambiguous description in language. Also at stake is the idea of objectivity: Does the nature of light—what light is—depend on how we observe it? 9

Scientists now no longer believed that matter consists of inanimate, random particles. Quantum physics had no materialist significance, because there were non-material things at the essence of matter. While Einstein, Philipp Lenard and Arthur Holly Compton investigated the particle structure of light, Louis de Broglie began looking at its wave structure.

De Broglie’s discovery was an extraordinary one: in his research, he observed that sub-atomic particles also displayed wave-like properties. Particles such as the electron and proton also had wavelengths. in other words, inside the atom—which materialism described as absolute matter—there were non-material energy waves, contrary to materialist belief. Just like light, these minute particles inside the atom behaved like waves at times, and exhibited the properties of particles at others. Contrary to materialist expectations, the “absolute matter” in the atom could be detected at certain times, but disappeared at others.

This major discovery showed that what we imagine to be the real world were in fact shadows. Matter had completely departed from the realm of physics and was headed in the direction of metaphysics. 10

The physicist Richard Feynman described this interesting fact about sub-atomic particles and light:

Now we know how the electrons and light behave. but what can I call it? If I say they behave like particles I give the wrong impression; also if I say they behave like waves. They behave in their own inimitable way, which technically could be called a quantum mechanical way. They behave in a way that is like nothing that you have ever seen before. . . . an atom does not behave like a weight hanging on a spring and oscillating. nor does it behave like a miniature representation of the solar system with little planets going around in orbits. nor does it appear to be somewhat like a cloud or fog of some sort surrounding the nucleus. It behaves like nothing you have ever seen before.

There is one simplification at least. Electrons behave in this respect in exactly the same way as photons; they are both screwy, but in exactly the same way.

How they behave, therefore, takes a great deal of imagination to appreciate, because we are going to describe something which is different from anything you know about. . . . Nobody knows how it can be like that. 11

To sum up, quantum physicists say that the objective world is an illusion. 12 Professor Hans-Peter Dürr, head of the Max Planck Institute of Physics, summarizes this fact:

Whatever matter is, it is not made of matter. 13

All the most celebrated physicists of the 1920s, everyone from Paul Dirac to Niles Bohr, and from Albert Einstein to Werner Heisenberg, sought to explain these results from quantum experiments. Eventually, one group of physicists at the Fifth Solvay Conference on Physics held in Brussels in 1927—Bohr, Max Born, Paul Dirac, Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli—reached an agreement known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. It took this name from the place of work of the leader of the group, Bohr, who suggested that the physical reality proposed by quantum theory was the information we have regarding a system and the estimates we make on the basis of that information. in his view, these “guesses” made in our brains had nothing to do with the “outside” reality.

In short, our “internal world” had nothing to do with the “outside real” world that had been the main subject of interest of physicists from Aristotle to the present day. Physicists abandoned their old ideas regarding this view and agreed that quantum understanding represented only “our knowledge” of the physical system. 14 the material world we can perceive exists solely as information in our brains. in other words, we can never obtain direct experience of matter in the outside world.

Jeffrey M. Schwartz, a neuroscientist and professor of psychiatry from University of California, described this conclusion emerging from the Copenhagen Interpretation:

As John Archibald cracked, “No phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon.” 15

In summary, quantum mechanics’ all conventional interpretations depend on the existence of a “perceiving being.” 16

Amit Goswami expanded on this insight:

Suppose we ask, Is the moon there when we are not looking at it? to the extent that the moon is ultimately a quantum object (being composed entirely of quantum objects), we must say no—so says physicist David Mermin. . . .

Perhaps the most important, and the most insidious, assumption that we absorb in our childhoods is that of the material world of objects existing out there—independent of subjects, who are the observers. There is circumstantial evidence in favor of such an assumption. Whenever we look at the moon, for example, we find the moon where we expect it along its classically calculated trajectory. Naturally we project that the moon is always there in space-time, even when we are not looking. Quantum physics says no. When we are not looking, the moon’s possibility wave spreads, albeit by a minuscule amount. When we look, the wave collapses instantly; thus the wave could not be in space-time. It makes more sense to adapt an idealist metaphysic assumption: There is no object in space-time without a conscious subject looking at it. 17

This, of course, applies to our perceptual world. the existence of the Moon is of course obvious in the outside world. but when we look at it, all we actually encounter is our own perception of the Moon.

Jeffrey M. Schwartz included these lines regarding the fact demonstrated by quantum physics in his book the Mind and the Brain:

The role of observation in quantum physics cannot be emphasized too strongly. in classical physics [Newtonian physics], observed systems have an existence independent of the mind that observes and probes them. in quantum physics, however, only through an act of observation does a physical quantity come to have an actual value. 18

Schwartz also summarized the views of various physicists on the subject:

As Jacob Bronowski wrote in the Ascent of Man,

“One aim of the physical sciences has been to give an exact picture of the material world. One achievement of physics in the twentieth century has been to prove that that aim is unattainable.” . . . Heisenberg said the concept of objective reality “has thus evaporated.“ Writing in 1958, he admitted that “the laws of nature which we formulate mathematically in quantum theory deal no longer with the particles themselves but with our knowledge of the elementary particles.” “It is wrong,” Bohr once said, “to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature.” 19

Fred Alan Wolf, one of the guest physicists in the documentary film “What the Bleep Do We Know?” described this same fact:

What makes up things are not more things. but what makes up things are ideas, concepts, information. . . . 20

Following the most fascinating and sensitive experiments that the human mind could devise over the course of 80 years, there are now no views opposed to quantum physics, which has been decisively and scientifically proven. No objections can even be suggested against the conclusions reached by the experiments performed. Quantum theory has been tested in hundreds of possible different ways devised by scientists. 21 It has earned the Nobel Prize for a number of scientists, and is continuing to do so.

Matter, the most fundamental concept of Newtonian physics and once regarded unconditionally as the absolute truth, has been eliminated. Materialists, supporters of the old belief that matter was the sole and definitive building block of existence, were really confused by the fact of “the lack of matter” suggested by quantum physics. They now have to explain all the laws of physics within the sphere of metaphysics.

The shock that this inflicted on materialists in the early 20th century was far greater than can be expressed in these lines. but the quantum physicists Bryce DeWitt and Neill Graham describe it:

No development of modern science has had a more profound impact on human thinking than the advent of quantum theory. Wrenched out of centuries-old thought patterns, physicists of a generation ago found themselves compelled to embrace a new metaphysics. the distress which this reorientation caused continues to the present day. Basically physicists have suffered a severe loss; their hold on reality. 22

The Wave-Like Properties of the Electron and the Scientific Proof

The most significant experiment revealing this interesting nature of the sub-atomic particles was the double-slit experiment. This was conducted to see how light and electrons both behave like waves, and how they both manifest this surprising feature to the same extent.

In order to gain a better understanding of the subject, assume that this experiment was conducted with grains of sand rather than electrons.

First, bring a source of sand grains, such as a sand-blower, behind a wall. Let there be two slits in the wall. and let there be on the other side of the wall a screen to detect the particles passing through these slits. Each sand grain impelled by the blower travels through one slit and strikes the screen.

Once a large number of grains have passed through the slits and hit the screen, we see that two clusters of points have appeared on the screen; one made up of grains passing through the first slit, and the other of those passing through the second. Events have transpired as we expected.

Now, imagine that we have conducted a similar experiment in a different way. Let us fill the experimental environment between the source and the screen with a pool of water, and use a vibrating object instead of the source of sand particles. This object sets the water in motion and continuously generates waves, spreading in all directions.

Unlike grains of sand, these waves are not localized in space. They are spread throughout the whole pool. as a result, the waves passing through both slits simultaneously spread out, encounter one another and interfere with each other.

When the crest of one wave combines with the trough of another, they neutralize each other. the wave effect disappears, leaving nothing. This interference is a basic characteristic of waves.

When the experiment was performed with electrons, instead of a cluster of particles striking the screen—as with the sand grains—the electrons were observed to interfere with one another. the expected result failed to occur if the electrons were regarded as particles only. Therefore, since the electrons displayed the wave-like feature of interfering with one another, they cannot be particles. Yet they cannot be waves either—because, just like particles, they struck the screen in discrete groups.

In this instance, the observations suggest that the electrons are localized particles when they leave the source and when they arrive at the screen, but that they act as waves everywhere in between. This is really very counterintuitive. 23

This experimental evidence did away with materialism, according to which, every particle must possess an objective existence somewhere in space. Again according to materialism, an electron must follow a single course through a space and cannot move through both slits like a wave which is not localized. Yet materialists’ expectations did not correspond to experimental reality.

The wave we are referring to here is different from a physical wave that occurs in water. Electron waves do not exist in the three-dimensional space in our physical world.

Fred Alan Wolf describes the wave concept in question:

When quantum physicists determine the probability of an event, they calculate a number. This number arises from the multiplication of two mathematical functions called quantum wave functions—or, as I call them, qwiffs. Qwiffs are imagined to be real waves moving through space and time. However, they are not real waves; they are purely imaginal. They are not fields like magnetic fields or gravitational fields. They cannot be measured. They have neither mass nor energy. They exist in our minds and imaginations. That is, they do not exist as we observe real material things existing. . . . the dynamic laws governing time loops bring a story into being. in other words, when a time loop is created, the world we commonly and uncommonly experience as “out there” arises both in our minds and in what we believe is objectively shared reality. 24

According to Wolf, the definite scientific truth regarding electrons cannot possibly be comprehended in terms of known physical or mathematical concepts. in any case, however, we are never in direct contact with the realities in the outside world. It is impossible for us to step beyond our own perceptions.

The double-slit experiment can be repeated with all sub-atomic particles. the results will always be the same, because quantum mechanics rules the entire universe. True, when billions of atoms combine to give rise to any large object or a human being, the probability of this interference effect ever being observed decrease sharply. but this does not mean that the laws of quantum physics have ceased to apply. This process is now just not observable. Therefore, this fact applies to all of matter.

According to the Washington University mathematician Thomas McFarlane, the large objects we encounter in our daily lives are not objectively existing matter, either. According to him, “the appearance of an objectively existing world independent of observation is an illusion.” 25

What quantum mechanics has scientifically proven is that the objective world exists in a concentrated wave form. According to physicists, the main problem that misleads people is that the world observed through our perceptions is high in convincing detail, sharpness and clarity. Yet the outside world never actually reaches us. We can never see the external reality, the original of the material world existing “out there.”

Our daily lives present an image highly inconsistent with the external realities. Therefore, the question arises of which one—whether the physical reality or what appears to us so sharp and clear—should be regarded as valid.

Thomas J. McFarlane states that the answer can be found by drawing a comparison.

According to him, we can imagine modern-day scientists going back 3000 years in the past and meeting with people who imagine the Earth is flat. the scientists politely tell them that they are in error on the subject, and that the Earth is actually spherical.

These people then ask the scientists, “how could you have come by such an insane idea?” the scientists will be unable to provide a single piece of evidence to prove their thesis, under the conditions and state of knowledge of that time. They, on the other hand, are quite capable of explaining that the Earth is flat, on the basis of all their experiments and the evidence they’ve gathered. They use the concept of plane geometry to measure out land and chart road maps, and find nothing in this that conflicts with their daily experience. in the same way, when they look at a wide open expanse or the sea, they say that they can see no curvature and so claim that there is no evidence showing that the Earth is round. the idea that “The Earth is round” thus remains a delusion. the scientists return to their time machine and to the present day, without having proved anything. 26

According to McFarlane, the reason why these time-travelers were unable to convince anyone the Earth is round is that we humans are so very small in comparison to the Earth. Since our experiment is confined to a geographically very small area, the Earth appears to be flat, even though it is not actually so. in other words, the flatness observed on Earth is not a true flatness at all, because the Earth is not flat. This is only an illusory flatness caused by the immense size of the Earth.

In order to prove that the Earth is round, we need to go beyond our day-to-day limitations. for instance, we could fly around the world in a plane, or we could go up into space in a rocket. but when limited to our day-to-day experiences, we have no evidence that the flatness we perceive is an illusion. Similarly, we have no reason not to believe that the Earth is flat.

After citing this example, McFarlane goes on to say:

If people have been so deluded about reality in the past, how can we be so sure that we are not deluded now? as we have seen, just because our present notions of reality are consistent with our ordinary experience, does not make them true. Since our experience certainly has its limits, perhaps our idea of the objective world really is an illusion, just as much an illusion as the idea of a flat Earth. 27

The Idea of Absolute Matter Has Disappeared Alongside Materialism

The conclusion revealed by quantum mechanics is that matter is not absolute and eternal, as materialists claim it to be. in the same way that matter is not timeless or eternal, the entities we see around us are not simply collections of atoms. According to quantum physics, matter has changed its nature in a way that materialists never dreamed of, and it has been scientifically proven that the basis of matter is simply a form of energy. in the face of the facts revealed by quantum physics, materialism has scientifically collapsed.

Paul Davies and John Gribbin summarize the way in which the new physics has entirely eliminated materialism:

It is fitting that physics—the science that gave rise to materialism— should also signal the demise of materialism. During this century the new physics has blown apart the central tenets of materialist doctrine in a sequence of stunning developments. First came the theory of relativity, which demolished Newton’s assumptions about space and time . . . Then came the quantum theory, which totally transformed our image of matter. 28

Fred Alan Wolf describes how scientists have now abandoned materialism:

Some of us, including many scientists, don’t agree with the new objective materialism. We believe in our heart of hearts, as did the alchemists that came before us, that something far richer than materialism is responsible for the universe. 29

What is the result of the collapse of materialism? the stubborn opinion that matter is the only absolute reality is one of the greatest deceptions that prevents people from believing in Allah. Instead of regarding the external world as the composite of their perceptions, they behave as if they had direct experience with everything they perceive. They apply the lack of purpose that materialism ascribes to matter to themselves, imagining that there is no reason for their existence on—or departure from—the Earth. Since they are unable to see and believe in the proofs of the existence of Allah, they expect Him to appear to them as a corporeal entity (surely Allah is beyond that). They believe that entities were never created, for which reason they never want to accept the existence of a Creator.

Using materialism as a pretext, they try to seek to deny the absolute existence of Allah and His creation. the collapse of materialism has eliminated that pretext and revealed full proof of the existence of Allah.

Particle physicist Stephen M. Barr expresses this:

Science has taken us on just such an adventure. Armed not with weapons but with telescopes and particle accelerators, and speaking by the signs and symbols of recondite mathematics, it has brought us to many strange shores and shown us alien and fantastic landscapes. but as we scan the horizon, near the end of the voyage, we have begun to recognize first one and then another of the old familiar landmarks and outlines of our ancestral home. the search for truth always leads us, in the end, back to God. 30

Believing that there can be direct experience of matter as it exists, is itself conjecture. There is no evidence of this in this world, of which we conceive through our perceptions. We can see and touch the world only through our perceptions. It is impossible for us ever to make direct contact with the actual material world outside. the universe is not timeless and eternal, but had a beginning and will have an end. There is no “aimlessness” at any point throughout the universe, as materialists claim. the entire universe and all the entities in it have been brought into being for a purpose.

All this points to a single conclusion: Creation rules at every point in the universe. the works created show the existence of a sublime power, a Creator. That Creator is Almighty Allah, Who enfolds all the worlds.

It is fruitless for materialists to struggle against this truth any longer, because modern physics has produced results that argue totally against them. in verses Allah has told us that:

We did not create heaven and Earth and everything in between them as a game. If We had desired to have some amusement, We would have derived it from Our Presence, but We did not do that. Rather We hurl the truth against falsehood and it cuts right through its brain and it vanishes clean away! Woe without end for you for what you portray! Everyone in the heavens and the Earth belongs to Him. Those in His presence do not consider themselves too great to worship Him and do not grow tired of it. (Surat al-Anbiya’, 16-19)

The External World Behind Quantum Physics

Light: A Form of Energy

Max Planck’s discovery shows that light exhibits the properties of both a wave and a particle. Since Planck’s day, countless experiments and observations have revealed this as an incontrovertible fact. That being so, in order to better comprehend this definition we can refer to another kind of waves, those that occur in water. Those waves are not made up of water, but are made up of the energy transmitted through the water. If a wave moves from one end of a swimming pool to another, this does not mean that the water in one side of the pool passes to the other. the water remains where it was. Only the wave itself moves, transmitting energy. When you move your hand in a bathtub filled with water you produce a small wave in the form of ripples, because you are imparting energy to the water. That energy manifests in the water in the form of a wave.

All waves are energy travelling and generally are trasmitted by the use of a medium—water, in this example.

Light waves, understandably, are rather more complicated than waves in water and do not require a medium in order to travel. They can travel through an empty vacuum. 31 Light is dependent on matter only at the initial stage. Once light has been emitted, it can move independently with no material element. Light energy can be found even where there is no matter at all.

Light and heat are different forms of the energy known as electromagnetic radiation. All the various forms of electromagnetic radiation act in the form of energy waves in space. Again, this can be compared—albeit simplistically—to ripples created when a stone is thrown into a lake. in the same way that those ripples may be of different width and amplitude, so electromagnetic radiation can have different wavelengths.

There are very great differences between the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. While some may be kilometers long, other wavelengths are smaller than a trillionth of a centimeter. Scientists divide these different wavelengths into named categories, which seem to imply that they are different forms of energy entirely. for example, rays with a wavelength as short as a trillionth of a centimeter are known as “gamma rays.” These transmit very high energy. Rays with wavelengths kilometers long are known as “radio waves” and transmit very weak energy. for that reason, while gamma rays are lethal to us, radio ways have no effect at all as they pass through your body.

The spectrum of wavelengths is extraordinary wide. the shortest length is 1025 times smaller than the longest. Numerically, this is expressed by the figure 1 followed by 25 zeroes. in order to better comprehend this number—which may be written as 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000—let’s provide some comparisons. for example, the number of seconds that have passed during the 4 billion years of the Earth’s existence is only 1017. If we wanted to count to 1025, day and night and non-stop, it would take us 100 million times longer than the age of the Earth! If we tried to place 1025 playing cards on top of one another, we would find ourselves far beyond the Milky Way and we would need to travel half the length of the observable universe.

Though the different wavelengths in the universe have been distributed in such a broad spectrum, it is interesting that our Sun’s light should have been confined to a very narrow range within that spectrum. Seventy percent of the different wavelengths emitted by the Sun fall within a very narrow range between 0.3 and 1.5 microns (1 micron is one thousandth of a millimeter.)

In that range, there are three kinds of light: visible light, near infrared rays and ultraviolet rays.

But these three types of light represent just one unit in the electromagnetic spectrum! in other terms, all the Sun’s light, when put together, represents just one out of the 1025 playing cards. That the Sun’s rays are restricted to such a narrow range is important, since only these rays can support life on Earth.

The light stimulating the human eye in order to form an image represents a narrow band of this broad range of frequencies—an area less than an octave in width. the wavelengths that stimulate the retina vary between 39 and 75 millionths of a centimeter. According to professor of neuropsychology Richard L. Gregory, “Looked at in this way we are almost blind!” 32

Bearing this in mind, you can realize how the light you see represents only a very small fraction of the light that you perceive to be out there. Your retina perceives images formed by light consisting of a rather small band. the realm of other frequency bands apart from this one is unknown to us.

The light in the narrow range of frequencies we can see conveys all that we can experience in the outside world.

The chief property of light is the effect it has on matter. in general, matter possesses inertia, resisting all the pressures placed on it by pushing or pulling. and whenever we push or pull an object, we feel pushing or pulling forces on ourselves. Newton called this action and reaction. Light also acts on matter, but light particles have no inertial property. We can see light reacting with objects, as when a laser beam cuts through metal or repairs a damaged retina. but we can never perceive the actions and reactions that matter has on light. Physicists refer to light’s inability to be pushed or pulled as “its absence of any rest mass.” 33

Rest mass is the mass of a body when at rest, in other words, it is a fixed entity. Yet when it comes to light, it is never at rest: It is in a state of constant movement. Therefore, light is a form of energy that lacks mass and for that reason does not exhibit a basic characteristic of “matter.”

Fred Alan Wolf describes this state of affairs:

When we see light, we really don’t see light at all: we see an effect appearing as a result of light pushing and pulling on the matter making up our sensory bodies. We see matter moving. Light itself is really out of this world . . . 34

Where Is Light, Actually?

Is it light that makes the outside world visible to us, and is the means whereby our brains form images of the outside world? Does light cause all corporeal entities to come into being when we step outside and cause them to disappear for us in a completely darkened room? Were it not for light, would the whole world around us cease to exist?

The idea that the external world we perceive exists only through the help of visible light is actually our own impression. There is actually no light in the outside world, in which a pitch darkness rules. Neither lamps, nor car headlights, nor the Sun emit any light in the sense we know it. Light occurs and illuminates the world we live in solely as a perception in our brains.

The Sun and other sources of light emit electromagnetic particles (photons) at varying wavelengths. These particles spread outward through the universe as dictated by their structures. for example, many radioactive particles pass right through your body. Only a lead shield can halt them. Some of these particles are so heavy and so charged with energy that they generally destroy any molecules they meet and continue on their way without changing course. This is the underlying reason why radiation causes cancer. X-ray machines make use of a weaker form of radiation. Via photosensitive film, these machines convert the effect set up by radio waves into visible light, converting them into a form that our retinas can detect. in other words, light exists as long as it is percieved by the eye and interpreted by the brain. but light and illumination do not exist outside in the terms with which we are familiar.

Radio waves do not damage human tissue as they pass through it. These waves cannot be detected by our senses, but the radios in your home or auto convert them into sound waves that your ears can perceive. the crackling noise you hear between channels or when no radio program is being broadcast is actually the “sound” of the cosmic background radiation that has been emitted by all the stars, including our Sun, since the beginning of the universe. What we refer to as “sound” here is actually our perception of our radios processing these waves and making them audible to our ears—followed by the signals our auditory nerves transmit to our brains.

In other words, the waves themselves do not really exist, since they have no material existence in the physical sense. They must be converted into a form that the ears can hear and the brain can interpret. the same applies to a television set. Various light waves that are invisible to us are converted by the set’s screen into a form we can perceive.

The photons that are the source of the perception we call “light” are light particles and generally bounce off the atom they first collide with. in doing so, they cause little harm to their point of impact. Because of the higher frequencies at which they vibrate, ultraviolet rays carry a greater energy charge that can effect our skin and may sometimes damage our cell’s genetic codes. That is why excessive exposure to sunlight can lead to cancer.

Due to their frequencies, the photons known as infrared leave some of their energy on the molecules with which they collide and increase the rate at which they vibrate—thus raising their temperature. That is why infrared rays are also known as “heat rays.” a hot stove or electric heater gives off large quantities of infrared rays that are perceived as heat on your skin. Yet in fact, nothing “hot” exists outside. What we call “heat” consists of energy generated by the light waves striking matter. It is impossible to claim that anything known as “heat” exists in the absence of a conscious entity that perceives it.

Some photons have frequencies that fall between the ultraviolet and the infrared. When these rays strike the retinal layer at the back of your eyes, they are converted into an electrical signal by the cells there. Thus we perceive photons, which are all in fact physical particles, as “light.” If the cells in our eyes perceived photons as “heat” particles, then we would have no such concepts as light, color, or darkness; and when we looked at physical objects, we would merely feel whether they were “hot” or “cold.” the way the outside world appears to us depends on the way our senses perceive it. There is actually no light or heat there, in objective terms.

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