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Miracles of the Qur’an 3

Harun Yahya (Adnan Oktar)

About the Author

Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary education in Ankara, he studied fine arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.

Harun Yahya’s works, translated into 72 different languages, constitute a collection for a total of more than 55,000 pages with 40,000 illustrations.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought against their peoples' lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and Prophet Muhammad (saas), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet [saas]), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of irreligious ideologies and to have the "last word," so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet (saas), who attained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues such as Allah's existence and unity and the Hereafter; and to expose irreligious systems' feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.

Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken in Maldives), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many people recovering faith in Allah and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for Allah's right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of Allah, render an invaluable service.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological confusion, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. The success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By the will of Allah, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.

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To the Reader

-A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation—and therefore, Allah's existence—over the last 150 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read only one of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.

-All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite readers to learn Allah's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning Allah's verses are explained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.

-This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and experiences to one another.

-In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of Allah. The author's books are all extremely convincing. For this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to read these books.

- We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.

- In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart.



1. The Scientific Miracles of the Qur'an

Fossilization and Iron Content

Radio Receivers on Mountains

The Earth's Gravitational Force

The Solidity of the Atom and Electron Orbits

The Skies With 'Woven' Orbits

The Miracle of Fire and Wood,that Cannot be Obtained

A Red Rose in the Sky: The Rosette Nebula

The Heliocentric System

Quasars and the Gravitational Lens Effect

Present-Day Radar Technology

The Expanding Earth

The Sun Will Eventually Expire

The Sun's Hydrogen and Helium Content

Heart Massage

The Cloning of Living Things

The Contraction Motion That Facilitates Birth

The Mother's Womb With Its Secure Protection

Oxidation in the Blood

The Wisdom Behind the Prohibition of Blood in the Qur'an

The Tsunami Effect in the Prophet Moses’ (as) Parting of the Sea

Scientific Facts in the Story of the Flood of Noah

The Ozone Layer at the Poles as the Sun Rises

2. Mathematical Miracles of the Qur'an

Part 1: Some of the Scientific Information Referring to Numbers in the Qur'an

The Date of the Lunar Landings

The Orbit of the Moon

The Ratio of the Sea to the Land

The Star Sirius

The Atomic Number of Iron

The Rotation of the Earth Around the Sun: 365 Days

Gender and the 23rd Chromosome Pair

The Sputnik Rising to the Skies

The Genetic Code of the Bee

Part 2: Some of the Scientific Facts Indicated Through Sequences of Letters in the Quran

Halley's Comet and 76 Years

Hemoglobin and Iron

The Ozone Layer

The Retina: The Layer of the Eye

Dna and the Beginning of Genetic History

Sand Dunes and the Planet Mars

Quantum Physics

Underground Energy Resources: Petrol

The Invention of Television

The Duration of Rotation of Venus and Mars

Part 3: Some of the Chemical Elements Indicated in the Qur'an

Part 4: Numbers of Significance in the Qur'an

The Allotment of Forty (40) Nights to the Prophet Moses (as)

Twelve (12) Fountains Springing From Stone

Help From Three Thousand (3,000) Angels

Help From Five Thousand (5,000) Angels

The Sending of Twelve (12) Leaders

Twelve (12) Tribes and Twelve (12) Fountains Flowing From The Rock

That the Number of Months in the Sight of Allah is Twelve (12)

Asking for Forgiveness Seventy (70) Times

The Number of the Years and the Reckoning Thereof

Their Inability to Produce Ten (10) Such Surahs

The Prophet Joseph's (as) Dream and Eleven (11) Stars

The Number of the Human Chromosome

The Angles in Honeycombs

The Companions of the Cave and How They Spent Three Hundred and Nine (309) Years in the Cave

A Group of Nine (9) in the City

The Matter of the Ninety Nine (99) Ewes

The Seven (7) Heavens

Swearing by the Ten (10) Nights

Appendix: The Deception of Evolution


The Holy Qur'an is the only holy scripture revealed by Allah (God) that has remained completely uncorrupted. In its inimitable verses, our Almighty Lord has revealed that the Qur'an is a protected Book. Unlike other scriptures, it has never been – and cannot be corrupted in any way whatsoever:

The Words of your Lord are perfect in truthfulness and justice.No one can change His Words.He is the All-Hearing,the All-Knowing.(Surat al-An'am, 115)

It is We Who have sent down the Reminder and We Who will preserve it. (Surat al-Hijr, 9)

The first two volumes of this book has already referred to some of the miraculous features proving that the Qur'an is Allah’s Word. Scientific facts unknown at the time the Qur’an was revealed, accurate accounts of major historical events from the past, bold predictions about the future, astonishing word repetition patterns that could not have come about by accident, calculations based on the number 19 and noteworthy dates calculated using numerological analysis are just a few of the miraculous aspects of the Qur'an. In addition to its scientific and mathematical miracles, the Qur'an also has no peers when it comes to its beautiful style and its unique Arabic rhyme. (For detailed information see, Harun Yahya, The Miracles of the Qur'an, expanded 4th edition.)

Since the first edition of this book was published over a decade ago, further researchinto these subjects has revealed numerous previously-unknown examples of miracles related to this Scripture, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (saas) fourteen centuries ago. In truth, one can certainly expect that the depth of the knowledge contained in the Qur’an will continue to amaze mankind for many years to come. (Allah knows the truth.) As the word of Omniscient Allah, the Holy Qur'an contains much information that people have not understood or are as yet unable to comprehend. By means of the advances in science and technology, that information comes to light at the time of Allah’s Choosing.

Muslims believe in Allah, His Messenger Muhammad (saas) and the Qur’an. Whilst believers don’t need these modern discoveries to prove that the Qur’an is the word of
Alla h – this truth is already clear-these new facts certainly show doubters that the Qur'an is totally compatible with science. However, we must always remember that the Qur'an is a book that distinguishesbetween truth and falsehood –and this is its outstanding characteristic. In addition, the Qur’an perfectly reflects the infinite knowledge and wisdom of Allah. The purpose of this book is to help people with very little religious belief understand they cannot ignore the facts contained in the Qur’an. For Muslims, it will simply add to their knowledge. In one verse of the Qur’an our Lord says:

We will show them Our Signs on the horizon and within themselves until it is clearto them that it is the truth. Is it not enough for your Lord that He is a witness of everything? (Surah Fussilat, 53)

1. The Scientific Miracles of the Qur’an

Fossilization and Iron Content

"They say,'What! When we are bones and crumbled dust,will we then be raised upas a new Creation!'Say:'It would not matter if you were rock or iron or indeedanycreated thing that you think is harder still!'They will say,'Who will bring us back again?'Say:'He Who brought you into being in the first place'..." (Surat al-Isra', 49-51)

These verses refer to the petrification of dead bodies and how these corpses, over time, turned into iron. Living tissue is not preserved over millions of years-which is why it is only possible to clearly see creatures of the past today once they have been fossilized. After they die, living things can be preserved for millennia by the fossilization process, by their bodies literally turning into stone under the ground. The word "fossil" refers to "the preservation of a living thing by petrification," by its turning into stone.

Iron is preserved undamaged in the body as the body becomes fossilized. Human beings need to consume an average of 10-15 milligrams of iron a day in order to be healthy. Any excess iron consumed is stored in the liver. In addition, the protein transferred in blood plasma also carries a certain amount of iron.1 The reference in the verse to the presence of iron in the remains of the human body is exceedingly wise from that point of view.

Research has also shown the presence of "pyrite," (FeS2) a compound of iron and sulfur, in fossils.2The iron sulfide forms very easily during the degradation of organic substances. It is therefore generally found in fossil shells and is capable of damaging the fossils since it can react with oxygen and water. The words "crumbled dust" in theverse may be a reference to "pyrite degradation," which leads to the fragmentation and collapse of a fossil as pyrite reacts with water and oxygen.3

Another fact confirmed by recent findings is that matter constantly seeks the most s-table state.

This is the very nature of matter.Therefore, given sufficient time, all matter will eventually turn into iron. Iron is the most stable state of nuclear matter. In fact,

cosmologists predict a stage in which everything we know will turn into iron as a result of nuclear fusion and nuclear fission reactions.4 In his book In Search of Schrödinger's Cat: Quantum Physics And Reality, the astrophysicist John Gribbon describes how iron is the most desirable state of matter and how all matter in the universe wants to turn into iron.5

The revelation in the Qur’an about human remains petrifying and fossilizing leading to an iron-dominant state, is a fact that has now been scientifically confirmed. In the same way that no archaeological, paleontological, geological or astronomical research was possible at the time the Qur'an was revealed, neither was it possible to identify the elements using an electron microscope. Thus, the facts revealed in the verse in Surat al-Isra’ once more confirm that the Qur'an is a divine text.

Radio Receivers on Mountains

We gave David great favor from Us: "O mountains and birds! Echo with him in hispraise!" And We made iron malleable for him: (Surah Saba',10)

There is a strong possibility that the description of mountains "echoing" in the above verse may refer to the workings of a modern radio. (Allah knows the truth.) The basic principles on which radios operate may be summarized as follows:

A radio system consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter takes the message to be sent, encodes it in what is known as a "sine wave" and transmits it in the form of waves through the air. The receiver takes in the radio waves and deciphers the message sent on the sine wave. In this way, the message is received in exactly the same form as it was sent. The word "awwibee," translated as "echo" in the above verseandmeaning "sound being repeated or returned", may very well be a reference to the transmission of these radio waves. (Allah knows the truth.)

Sounds are emitted in the form of sound waves by way of an antenna. This is in order that the receiver can take in the data which has been sent via an antenna linked to the receiver. The purpose behind using antennae is the transmission into space of the waves emitted by the radio transmitter. The receiving antenna is intended to collect as many radio waves and messages as possible. This is why NASA uses giant antennae dishes 70 meters across for its satellites millions of kilometers away in space.

There are also radio telescopes which can use radio waves to form images. Since radio waves are very long, a radio telescope has to be much larger in order to collect them as clear images. In order to obtain sharper and better images, astronomers use a connected series of smaller telescopes or receptors. These telescopes act collectively as one very large device-almost like a team, each with its own role. In their physical appearance,these antennaeseries resemble mountain systems.

In addition, "repeaters" are employed to permit radio communications over great distances. These devices repeat and strengthen weak signals and enable them to be transmitted over considerable distances. Such devices are generally sited on tall buildings or preferably on the tops of mountains, in order to have the greatest effect. The use of the word "awwibee," translated as "echo" in the above verse, is exceedingly wise.The statement of, "O mountains and birds! Echo with him in his praise!'" in verse 10 of Surah Saba' may be a description of that technology. (Allah knows the truth.)

The Earth’s Gravitational Force

Did We not make the earth a receptacle?

(Surat al-Mursalat, 25)

The Arabic word "kifatan," translated as "receptacle" in the above verse, means "livingthings being gathered together and protected in their dwellings.” It can also mean “a place where living or inanimate things are gathered together” or “a place on which things are piled or collected.” "Kifatan" comes from the root word "kafata," which means "to collect, gather toward one, embrace."

With its gravitational force, the earth pulls human beings and everything else on it -living or inanimate -toward its center. It is very likely that the use of a verb meaning "to pull toward one" refers to this force of gravity. (Allah knows the truth.)

Thanks to the force of gravity that pulls animals, plants, human beings and everything else on Earth toward itself, people are able to walk on the ground, objects can remain where they are without flying off into the air, athmosphere encircles the Earth and rain falls on Earth.

Sir Isaac Newton, regarded as one of the greatest scientists ever, investigated this feature of the Earth. During his studies, he made one of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time. He wrote about gravity in his famous book, Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687. The Latin word "attraere" Newton used in discussing gravity also means "to attract, bring together."

The reference in the Qur'an to one of the Earth's four great forces, only defined in the 17th century, is just one of the proofs that the Qur'an was sent down from the Presence of Allah.

The Solidity of the Atom and Electron Orbits

"You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds–the handwork of Allah Who gives to everything its solidity. He is aware of what you do."(Surat an-Naml, 88)

One possible interpretation of the above verse is that it may very well be a reference to the strength of the atom, the building block of all matter. It may allude to the orbit of electrons in the atom, which students all over the world are taught about in their daily science lessons. Looked at in the context of atoms, the use of the term "to everything its solidity" can be interpreted as referring to the solidity of the atom, which cannot be broken even if struck with a sledgehammer (Allah knows the truth). That is because objects themselves are not perfectly solid. Only the atom is perfectly solid.

For example, even if a vase is shattered, the atoms that make it up remain solid. A car may turn into a pile of junk after an accident, or a skyscraper may collapse after an explosion, but the atoms remain unwavering in their unity. Indeed, the situation remains the same whether it is a delicate flower or a tough piece of metal: The atoms that constitute matter do not fall apart or stray off-orbit. Therefore, even the most fragile-looking piece of matter is actually very solid in its Creation. The wisdom behind the reference to "everything" in the verse may well lie in the fact that the atom is the basis of all matter.

Very solid structures are even to be found in nuclear bombs, which work by splitting atomic bonds. In nuclear fission, the atomic nucleus is split and then divided into two smaller atoms. In the nuclear fusion technique, two small atoms are combined togethertomake one larger atom. For example, solar energy is manufactured in this way, by hydrogen being turned into helium. As a result, there is a constant cycle from matter to energy and from energy to matter,and there is a general solidity in the universe at theatomic level.

If one examines this verse of the Qur’an further, there may also be reference to the clouds of electrons around atomic nuclei, whose movement is likened to "mountains... going past like clouds." (Allah knows the truth.) The electrons in their orbits, in the toms, that make up the “mountains” strongly resemble a cloud –this can be said about their appearance, not to mention their constant and rapid motion around the nucleus. Indeed, the orbiting electrons in the atom are regularly described as an "electron cloud" in contemporary scientific literature.7 The concept of an electron cloud is used in molecular physics, chemistry and quantum chemistry to describe the way they move in a manner similar to a cloud around the atomic nucleus.8

It is impossible to understand the structure of the atom and establish this cloud-like appearance of electrons without such high-tech devices as electron microscopes. The fact that the information provided fourteen centuries ago in the Qur'an matches the discoveries of advanced, present-day technology is one of the miracles of the Qur'an. It is also a manifestation of our Lord's titles of Alim (He Who knows all things), Fatir (the Creator) and Halik (He Who will see and arrange the existence of all things and Who creates accordingly, He Who creates from nothing).

The Skies with ‘Woven’ Orbits

"By heaven furnished with paths" (Surat adh-Dhariyat, 7)

The Arabic word "alhubuki," translated as "furnished with paths"in the seventh verse of Surat adh- Dhariyat, comes from the verb "hubeke," meaning "to weave closely, to knit,to bind together." The use of this word in the verse is particularly wise and represents the current state of scientific knowledge in two aspects.

Firstly, the orbits and paths in the universe are so dense and intertwined that they constitute intersecting paths, just like the threads in a piece of fabric. The Solar System we live in is made up of the Sun, the planets and their satellites -along with heavenly objects such as meteors and comets, which are in constant motion.The Solar System moves through the galaxy known as the Milky Way, which contains 400 billion known stars.9 It is estimated that there are billions of galaxies. Miraculous, celestial bodies and systems revolve at speeds of thousands of kilometers an hour. They move through space without colliding with one another when logically, one would think they would collide with each other constantly.

The science of astronomy was developed with the aim of mapping the positions and courses of stars. Meanwhile, the study of astro-mechanics was developed in order to determine the manner in which these complex motions actually work. Astronomers used to assume that orbits were perfectly spherical. The fact is, however, that heavenly bodies are known to follow mathematical shapes, such as spherical, elliptical, parabolic or hyperbolic orbits. Dr. Carlo Rovelli of the University of Pittsburgh says, "Our space in which we live is just this enormously complicated spin network.” 10

Secondly, the description of the sky in the Qur’an - using a word meaning "woven" -may be a reference to the String Theory of physics. (Allah knows the truth.) According to this theory, the basic elements that comprise the universe are not point-like particles, but strings resembling miniature violin strings. These tiny, identical and one dimensional strings oscillating in the form of filaments are rather like loops in appearance. Modern-day thinkers assume that the origin of all the diversity in the universe lies in the way these “strings” operated at different levels of vibration, in the same way that violin strings produce different sounds with different vibrations depending on how they are plucked.11

Although it is not possible to see the size of the threads in the String Theory, famoustheses

such as Einstein’s theory of general relativity and his ideas on quantum mechanics –can still be calculated mathematically. These strings, which scientists regard as the material from which space and time are woven, are just 1.6x10-35 m 0.000000000000000000000000000000000016 meters) in size.12 This, known as Planck's length, is the smallest known measurement, being just ten to twenty of the protons that make up the nucleus of that atom.13 If an atom were to be magnified to the size of the Solar System, each one of these strings would be no bigger than an average-sized tree.14Also, we must constantly bear in mind that an atom is 100,000 times smaller than the smallest thing that can be seen with the naked eye. It is only when one remembers facts like these can a person truly grasps how extraordinary the atomic world really is.

Professor of Physics Abhay Ashtekar from the University of Pennsylvania and Professor of Physics Jerzy Lewandowski from the University of Warsaw interpret the woven appearance of space as follows in an article titled "Space and Time Beyond Einstein":

In this theory, Einstein wove the gravitational field into the very fabric of space and time... The continuum we are all used to is only an approximation. Perhaps the simplest way to visualize these ideas is to look at a piece of fabric. For all practical purposes, itrepresents a two-dimensional continuum; yet it is really woven by one-dimensional threads. The same is true of the fabric of space-time. It is only because the "quantum threads" which weave this fabric are tightly woven in the region of the universe we inhabit that we perceive a continuum. Upon intersection with a surface, each thread, or polymer excitation, endows it with a tiny "Plank quantum" of area of about 10-66 cm2. So an area of 100 cm2 has about 1068 such intersections; because the number is so huge, the intersections are very closely spaced and we have the illusion of a continuum.15

An Article in the New York Times seeking an answer to the question "How Was the Universe Built?" contained the following lines:

Even the tiny quarks that make up protons, neutrons and other particles are too big to feel the bumps that may exist on the Planck scale. More recently, though, physicists have suggested that quarks and everything else are made of far tinier objects: superstrings vibrating in 10 dimensions. At the Planck level, the weave of space-time would be as apparent as when the finest Egyptian cotton is viewed under a magnifying glass, exposing the warp and woof.16

In his book Three Roads to Quantum Gravity, the theoretical quantum physicist Lee Smolin devotes one chapter to "How to Weave a String" and says this on the subject:

... Space may be 'woven' from a network of loops... just like a piece of cloth is 'woven' from a network of threads.17

In his book Our Cosmic Habitat the cosmologist and astrophysicist Prof. Martin Rees says:

According to our present concepts, empty space is anything but simple... and on an even tinier scale, it may be a seething tangle of strings.18

Allah describes the universe as being woven paths and orbits in verse 7 of Surat adh-Dhariyat – and this demonstrates that the Qur'an agrees with modern science. This perfect harmony between the Qur'an and present day scientific developments clearly reveals that the Qur'an is the word of our Lord, the Creator of all. He knows best about all things. Indeed, He asks a pertinent question in one particular verse:

"Will they not ponder the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it." (Surat an-Nisa’,82)

Aerodynamic Forces and the Flight Programmed in Birds

Do they not see the birds suspended in mid-air up in the sky? Nothing holds them there except Allah. There are certainly signs in that for people who believe. (Surat an-Nahl,79)

Due to the force of gravity, all bodies which are airborne should eventually fall to earth, either quickly or slowly. Everything, living or otherwise, is subject to the Earth’s gravitational pull. But as a miracle of Allah, birds are able to resist this force and flyupward and downward in the air with extraordinary ease and agility. They maneuver in the air, and sometimes even fold their wings and glide through it with effortless graceanddignity. Even the minutest details which scientists have discovered in the bodies ofbirds -from their beautiful feathers to their powerful lungs, from the arrangement of the general physiology to the shape of their perfect wings -are equipped with special features and a faultless order which enables them to fly. A chick totally unaware of the act of flight and the laws of aerodynamics is born with theability to fly. The chick launches itself downwards and begins to fly, just as if it knew its body was created for flight. This is not information that is taught subsequently noris this something that a bird learns by trial and error. Amazingly, a bird knows it has the body structure needed to fly. Without any encouragement, it naturally possesses the courage to launch itself into the air and then flies without hitting the ground. This can only happen through Allah's inspiration.

The Arabic word "yumsikuhunna" translated as "holds" in verse 79 of Surat an-Nahl means "not letting them go, taking them, catching them, or holding them." The word is the present tense of the verb "amsaka," meaning "to catch with the hand, hold and pull back." With this word, our Almighty Lord reveals that He holds the bird in theair and that it flies by His command. Bird flight is still the subject of wide-ranging research by scientists. Having observed the perfection of bird flight, scientists use the avian body and avian flight ability as direct models in producing suchvehicle as airplanes and jets.

The above-mentioned verse may well be highlighting the manner in which birds comply with the aerodynamic laws created by Allah as they fly. The science of aerodynamics studies the behavior of solid bodies in a fluid environment such as air. For example, as a plane moves through the air, various forces emerge that affect its movement. In order for the plane to move as planned and not to run into any resistance, the plane is thoroughly tested beforehand against the resistance exhibited by the air. Its shape and movement is planned as a result of lengthy calculations, measurements and experiments.

Today, scientists are still astonished at how birds defy gravity with such skill and poise. Using no form of trial and error, they cope with the laws of aerodynamics in the most perfect manner. The use of the word "musakhkharatin" (suspended) in the verse to describe bird flight is an exceedingly specific choice of language, because it suggests that they have been "encouraged to a specific end, have had to do something, have submitted or bowed their heads, have bound themselves to Allah or have submitted to His laws". This is the implication contained in the word itself. In that way, the verse may be indicating the manner in which aerodynamic laws have a determining influence on bird flight. (Allah knows the truth.)

At first sight, there would appear to be nothing to make it difficult for birds to fly. But according to the laws of aerodynamics, any object flying in the air is subject to various different forces. The best-known of these are gravity, propulsion, drag and lift. In order for any meaningful flight to take place, these forces have to be balanced perfectly. The slightest imbalance in a bird would cause it to come crashing down to earth each time it tried to fly. For example, if gravity is stronger than the other forces, the bird will fall to earth. That is why the word in the verse is the best possible expression of the situation which we are examining here. The presence in the Qur'an of expressions containing such information at a time when no science of aerodynamics or mechanics existed, once again, reveals that the Qur'an is a divine text.

In addition to the aerodynamic perfection in bird flight, scientists are also researching the migration patterns of thousands of kilometers that they make. Ornithologists have today concluded that these are literally programmed in them. The way that young birds are able to undertake long and arduous journeys with no guide or previous experience is the most obvious example of this. The Arabic word "musakhkharatin" in the verse quoted above implies "being encouraged toward a specific target, being taken under command, being taken under submission," clearly revealing that birds obey the instructions they are given when following the directions set out for them. There is no possibility of birds, which are devoid of intellect and consciousness, managing to make their own calculations as they fly. Scientists today are in agreement that these extraordinary abilities in birds are "pre-programmed" in them. This is set out in an article in the journal Science:

There is good evidence that young birds are equipped with endogenous migratory programs, which tell them roughly how many days and/or nights that they must fly, and in what direction.19 (emphasis added)

In his book La Puissance et la Fragilité, Pierre Jean Hamburger from René Descartes University describes the extraordinary 24,000-kilometer journey made by the shearwater that lives in the Pacific Ocean:

It sets out from the coast of Australia. From there it flies straight southward to the Pacific. Then it turns north and flies along the coast of Japan until reaching the Bering Sea where it can rest for a while. Following that break it sets off again, and this time heads south. Crossing the western coast of America, it arrives in California. It then crosses the Pacific to return to its starting point. The route and timing of this 15,000-mile (24,000-kilometer) figure '8' journey it makes every year never change. The journey in question lasts a whole six months, always coming to an end in the third week of September on the island it left six months before, at the nest it left six months before. What comes next is even more astonishing; after their return, the birds clean their nests, mate, and lay a single egg over the last 10 days of October. The chicks hatch out two months later, grow very fast and are cared for over three months until their parents set out on that stupendous journey. Two weeks later; around the middle of April, it is time for the young birds to take wing on their own journey. They follow exactly the same route as that described above, with no guide. The explanation is so obvious: These birds must have all the directions for such a journey within the inherited characteristics passed on within the egg. Some people may claim that birds navigate by the Sun and stars or follow the winds prevailing along their route on this journey out and back. But it is clear that these factors cannot determine the journey's geographical and chronological accuracy.20 (emphasis added)

Professor Peter Berthold, a famous ornithologist who has investigated bird migration for 20 years and president of the Max Planck Institute Ornithological Research Center, says the following about bird migration:

Every year an estimated 50 billion birds make migratory journeys, along a network of routes that encompasses the whole world. Sometimes travelling tens of thousands of kilometers, crossing continents and oceans, migratory birds have become so well adapted to this task that they can traverse the largest deserts and seas, the highest mountains and expanses of ice... migratory birds have comprehensive, detailed, innate spatio-temporal programs for successful migration. Such programs evidently enable even young, inexperienced birds to migrate alone, with no adult guide, to the species- or population-specific winter quarters that they have never seen before. As will be explained further below, they do this by "vector" navigation: referring to a vector composed of a genetically predetermined migratory direction and to a time-plan, also genetically predetermined, for the course of migration... It follows that the departure time is programmed by genetic factors... But how do birds "know" the direction in which to migrate, so that they will reach their specific winter quarters? Here, again data have been obtained that point to direct genetic control mechanisms. It has long been suspected that migration directions are innate... when displaced from the normal starting point, and still more crucially, when tested in orientation cages, migratory birds showed directional preferences practically identical to the normal ones, even if they had never migrated before. Now a number of experiments have provided evidence of the genetic determination of migration direction... Even these directional changes are evidently programmed endogenously to a great extent... With an innate pattern of migratory activity, the birds possess a genetically determined migration schedule. In combination with genetically determined migratory directions, as mentioned above, it guides even inexperienced individuals, migrating for the first time, "automatically" to their previously unknown winter quarters (vector navigation, using a vector composed of a time- and a direction-plan).21 (emphasis added)

In conclusion, although scientists are unable to fully account for it, they still agree that migration is pre-programmed behavior that birds possess from birth. Journeys lasting thousands of kilometers, the preparations made for these flights and birds’ ability to find their way and navigate during flight all take place by our Lord's choosing, as expressed in the above verse. The accuracy of all the information provided in the Qur'an is important evidence that this information has all been revealed by Allah.

The Miracle of Fire and Wood, That Cannot Be Obtained Artificially

Have you thought about the fire that you light? Is it you who make the trees that fuel it grow or are We the Grower? We have made it to be a reminder and a comfort for travelers in the wild. So glorify the name of your Lord,the Magnificent!(Surat al-Waqi 'a,71-74)

One of the chemical substances mainly responsible for the structure of wood is "lignocellulose." This substance is a compound of the materials known as "lignin" and "cellulose" that give wood its hardness. In terms of chemical structure, wood is made up of 50%cellulose, 25% hemicelluloses and 25% lignin.22 An analysis of these substances' chemical formulae reveals three vital elements: hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.

Hydrogen, oxygen and carbon are the building blocks of millions of substances in nature. But as a miracle from Allah, these three also combine to give rise to the substance "lignocellulose", which is found in plants. Although scientists know that hydrogen, oxygen and carbon are the ingredients of lignocellulose, some of the greatest minds in the world have been completely unable to reproduce this special material in plants. Althoughthese elements can easily be obtained, scientists have been unable to create a single piece of wood by artificial means, despite having countless examples before them to study. Yet all the trees we see around us have been ceaselessly producing this compound for millions of years by combining oxygen, carbon, water and sunlight.

One of the compounds in lignocellulose is water, expressed by the formula H2O. Despite containing a large amount of water in its make-up, wood is still somehow one of the most flammable materials in nature. The above verse is very wise in noting that wood cannot be made by human beings. By means of thesecompounds and the water it contains, wood is one of the most important fuels of fire.

Trees are an important sphere of scientific research. Scientists are still struggling to grasp all the details in their Creation. The complex structures of the cells that constitute trees have still not been fully unraveled, despite advances in technology and intensive research. The Forestry Commission of Great Britain, one of the world's leading forestry research institutions, says the following under the heading "Lack of Informationon the Chemistry and Structure of Wood Fibres":

Despite the knowledge resulting from earlier and ongoing research, there still exists alack of information on the chemistry and structure of wood fibres. Large variations can be found within a single tree, from the pith to the bark and from the base to the topof a tree. Often the chemistry and structure of a wood cell are extremely heterogeneous and difficult to investigate with conventional techniques.23

A paper in the scientific journal Plant Physiology titled "Our Understanding of How Wood Develops is not Complete" describes the limited knowledge of the subject that scientists possess:

Considering the important role that wood is foreseen to play in the near future, it is surprising to see that our understanding of how wood develops is far from complete. With a few exceptions, very little is known about the cellular, molecular, and developmental processes that underlie wood formation. Xylogenesis represents an example of cell differentiation in an exceptionally complex form. This process is controlled by a wide variety of factors both exogenous (photoperiod and temperature) and endogenous (phytohormones) and by interaction between them. It is driven by the coordinated expression of numerous structural genes (some of known function) involved in cell origination, differentiation, programmed cell death, and heartwood (HW) formation and by virtually unknown regulatory genes orchestrating this ordered developmental sequence. The presence of gene families and the extreme plasticity of the metabolism involved (as exemplified by the unusual behavior of plants with transformed cell walls; for review, see Fagard et al., 2000) add a further complexity to our understanding of the process of wood formation.24

The extraordinary Creation in wood is emphasized thus in another scientific journal, Annals of Botany:

Wood formation is a highly complicated process involving an unbelievable variety of metabolic steps in the roots, stem and crown of shrubs and trees. At the centre of these processes is cambial activity which results in the release of young woody cells that undergo maturation until autolysis of the protoplast, indicating the final developmental stage. Later on, in various tree species, woody cells become further modified by an additional process called heartwood formation. The properties of wood that make it an appropriate raw material for many purposes are largely determined by the specific architecture of the cell walls. Difficulties in investigating these many developmental stages appear when routine techniques, which work well for soft plant tissues, are applied. Therefore, in most cases, these techniques need modification or the use of completely revised protocols to yield good results for woody tissues.25

These details in the Creation of wood remind us, as set out in Surat al-Waqi 'a, that wood cannot be made by human beings. Just a few of the inimitable features of wood, which cannot be produced artificially, are as follows:

Wood, a Resistant Material

The hard and resistant nature of wood is the result of the cellulose fibers it contains. Cellulose is exceptionally hard and is insoluble in water. It is this property of cellulose that makes the use of wood in construction so advantageous. Cellulose, described as a "contractible and incomparable substance," has been used for centuries in the construction of buildings, bridges and many other structures.

Wood consists of parallel columns made up of convex cells laid end to end. These are surrounded by cellulose fibers in spiral form. In addition, these cells are contained in "lignin," a substance made from a complex, polymer structure resin. These spirally-enclosed layers make up 80% of the thickness of the cell wall and bears most of the load there is to bear. When a wood cell collapses internally, it absorbs the shock of a blow by detatching itself from the surrounding cells. Even when such collapses causes a crack along the length of the fiber, the wood remains remarkably unharmed. That is why wood is strong enough to bear specific loads even if it is broken.

In addition, wood is also able to absorb the energy of low-speed blows. World War Two era fighter plane known as the "Mosquito" was made by compressing wood between strips of fiber board, making it the most damage-resistant plane of its time. The rigid, resistant nature of wood make it a very reliable material because wood breaks or cracks slowly enough to be visible from the outside, thus giving people enough time to take the necessary precautions.26

A material based on the structure of wood can be up to fifty times more resistant than other synthetic materials currently in use.27 Today, these unique properties of wood are used against high speed impacts and destructive fragments such as bombs and bullets. Yet scientists have not been able, despite their staunchest efforts, to come even close to replicating a piece of wood with all its many attributes. Every detail in the Creation of wood, - the thickness of the internal layers, their level of compression, the number of vessels, their layout and the materials inside it, have been specially created to result in that resistance.

The Hydraulic System That Raises Water Many Meters against the Force of Gravity

The dead part of wood, known as the "xylem," contains hollow channels. These, also known as "wood vessels," consist of inanimate cells that gradually lose their nuclei and cytoplasm, and which are piled one on top of the other. Long, thin wood vessels form when the membranes between the cells dissolve and disappear.

Roots spreading out beneath the soil carry the water and minerals the plant needs upward through these tissues. The water is then transmitted as far as the leaves. The way the roots absorb the water in the ground is reminiscent of the “test bore technique”. The roots themselves have no engines to initiate the water absorption process; neither do they have any technical equipment with which to pump water and minerals for distances of up to several meters. But the roots absorb the water present in the depths of the soil by spreading over a very wide area.

This lifting process that the plant performs so flawlessly is an exceedingly complex one. Yet this system has still not yet been fully understood, even in these days of high technology and space travel. The presence of a "hydraulic system” in plants was determined some two centuries ago, but we still do not know how this action in defiance of the force of gravity takes place. The superior technology squeezed into such a confined space is just one of the examples demonstrating the incomparable knowledge of our Lord, the Creator of the system. Like everything in the universe, Almighty Allah created the transportation system in trees.

As seen in the picture above, wood consists of tubular or straw-shaped cells. By combining one on top of the other, these cells, which make up the roots and trunks of plants, serve as channels that carry water and minerals throughout the plant. This tissue, known as "xylem," also constitutes a powerful structure that enables the plant to remain upright. To the right, we can see a slice of dry wood in cross-section. When dried out, the tube-like channels become hollow, as shown in the illustration.

Roots Capable of Selecting Minerals from the Soil

Plants draw all the mineral nutrients they need from the soil; this includes potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Since the substances are not found separately in the soil, they absorb them as ions (positively or negatively charged atoms). Of all the many inorganic ions in dissolved state in the soil, plants absorb only the fourteenthey need.

The iron concentration inside plant cells is 1,000 times greater than that in the soil outside.29 Under normal condition, an exchange of matter from a high density region to alower density one will take place. But exactly the opposite happens in plant roots, and the ions in the soil are easily able to pass into the root cells.30

Because of this state of affairs that operates contrary to the pressure system, the plant uses a high level of energy in the pumping process. In addition, in the plant roots' taking up ions from the soil, there needs to be an identification system that attracts only the wanted ions and repels the unwanted ones. This shows that the ion pumps in the root cells are no ordinary pumps, but possess the ability to select between ions. Bearing in mind that the cell in the plant roots are made up of atoms devoid of any intelligence or consciousness, we must all surely acknowledge what an extraordinary process ion selection truly is.

Photosynthesis: The Superior Technology in a Miniature Factory

Whilst you may think that it is rare for a material to be as elusive to scientists as wood is, leaves tell a similar story. Leaves play a part in one of nature’s most important processes - photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, one of the systems that scientists still do not fully understand, may be summarized as plants manufacturing their own nutrients. Because of the delicate but perfect structure contained within plant cells, plants are able to store solar energy. At the end of various complex processes, this energy takes on a form which can readily be used by human beings as well as animals. In addition, the photosynthetic energy stored in trees is also emanated during burning. For example, the energy emitted by wood when burned to heat a house is actually energy from the Sun stored during the formation of wood.31

The photosynthesis system, which operates like a miniature factory, takes place in an organelle known as the "chloroplast" inside the plant cell. This is where it gets its distinctive green color from. Chloroplasts are just one-thousandth of a millimeter in size, for which reason they can only be seen under a microscope. When solar energy falls on the leaf, they transmit it to the layers inside it. Chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts in the leaf cells convert this light energy into chemical energy. The plant obtaining this chemical energy immediately uses it to obtain nutrients. It took scientists until the mid-20th century to obtain this information - summarized in just a few lines here. Pages of chain reactions were written to describe the whole process of photosynthesis. But some links in the chain are still a mystery to scientists. Yet, plants have been performing these processes uninterruptedly for hundreds of millions of years, thus providing the earth with food and oxygen.

The chloroplast shown magnified in the illustration above is in fact just one-thousandth of a millimeter in size. It contains many organelles that assist with the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, which takes place in many stages, not all of which are yet fully understood, takes place at high speed in these microscopic factories.

Here, we must take a moment to remind ourselves of the following: not a single cell constituting wood can be made by artificial means, and human beings' helplessness in the face of dead wood cells, shows the presence of a sublime Creator. The properties of wood, about which many volumes could be written, reveal the perfection in Allah’s Creation. The countless qualities which wood is synonymous with inspires scientists to research its make-up yet despite extensive efforts, there is still much that is not known about the true nature of wood. Allah’s Sublime Knowledge and intellect is the only possible explanation behind wood.

A Red Rose in the Sky: The Rosette Nebula

When the Heaven shall be cleft asunder, and become rose red, like stained leather. (Surat ar-Rahman, 37)

The Arabic expression translated above as "become rose red, like stained leather" is "wardatan kaalddihani." This term compares an image appearing in the sky to a red rose. This description bears a close similarity to red celestial bodies with a crumpled appearance, especially the "Rosette Nebula."

Nebula is the name given to cloud-like masses of gas in space. Before they become nebulae, they are stars -and since these stars are very large, they release gasses into space because of their high internal pressure and temperatures. These eruptions of gas are very large and fast.These gasses then coalesce to form a gas cloud, with a temperature of more than 15,000 0C.32

One type of nebula is known as the "Rosette Nebula" because of its close resemblance to a rose. The Rosette Nebula is also a vast cloud of gas and seems to have an area five times greater than that of the full moon.33 Its true diameter is estimated at 130 light years.34

A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior Penn State University researcher in the field of astronomy and astrophysics, examined the Rosette Nebula using the renowned Chandra X-ray telescope. They imaged hundreds of stars in the Rosette Nebula and determined that by crashing into one another, stars produce gas at temperatures of six million degrees. Townsley describes what she saw:

A ghostly glow of diffuse X ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy. We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized.35

The existence of this body seen in the illustrations can only be confirmed by high-tech observation equipment. This state of affairs regarding the skies noted in the Qur'an is in great agreement with the findings of present-day astronomy. In one verse of the Qur'an, we are told:

You do not engage in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an or do any action without Our witnessing you while you are occupied with it. Not even the smallest speck eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Nor is there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book. (Surah Yunus, 61)

The Heliocentric System

He created the heavens and the earth with truth.He wraps the night around the day and wraps the day around the night,and has made the Sun and Moon subservient, each one running for a specified term. Is He not indeed the Almighty, the Endlessly Forgiving? (Surat az-Zumar, 5)

In the above verse, the movement of the Earth is described by the word "yukawwiru," which comes from root verb "takwir." This means "to cover up a spherical body," in the way that the rotation of the Earth gives rise to night and day, like the winding of a turban around the head of a man. In addition to the spherical shape of the Earth, the word is also the most accurate expression of its movement around the Sun. Because of the Earth's spherical shape and its movement around the Sun, the Sun always illuminates one side of the Earth while the other is in darkness. The side in shadow is shrouded by the darkness of night, only to be replaced seamlessly by the brightness of day when the Sun rises. The positions of the Sun and Earth are revealed as follows in Surah Ya Sin:

And the Sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. And We have decreed set phases for the Moon, until it ends up looking like an old palm spathe. It is not for the Sun to overtake the Moon nor for the night to outstrip the day; each one is swimming in a sphere. (Surah Ya Sin, 38-40)

The movements of the Sun and Moon in the final verse of this excerpt are described by the Arabic word "yasbahoona," meaning "flowing, passing or swimming." This word refers to an action performed by someone without any help from others. Someone acting according to this verb continues to perform it alone, with no intervention from anyone else. The above verses may therefore be referring to the Sun's independent movement in the universe, independent of any other celestial body. (Allah knows the truth.) It is impossible for us to see or follow the movement of the Sun with our own eyes. In reality, the true nature of its existence is beyond us. It is only possible to determine that movement using special technological equipment. As stated in verse 39 of Surah Ya Sin, in addition to rotating around its own axis once every 26 days, the Sun also moves through its own course.

It is also reported in the verse that the Sun is not allowed to "overtake the Moon", and it stated in the Qur’an that the Sun and Moon do not revolve around the same body, as astronomers put it. At the same time, it is made clear in the verse that there is no connection between the motion responsible for night and day and the movement of the Sun and Moon. (Allah knows the truth.)

Until the 16th century, it was thought that the Earth was the center of the universe. This view is known as the "geocentric model," from the Greek words geo (Earth) and kentron (center). This belief was questioned by the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543 in his book De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Of the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres), in which he suggested that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun. As a result of observations using a telescope performed by Galileo Galilei in 1610, it was scientifically established that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Up until this point, it had been widely accepted that the Sun revolved around the Earth – so most scholars of the time stubbornly rejected Copernicus' theory. The famous astronomer Johannes Kepler's views setting out the movements of the planets confirmed the heliocentric model in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this model, whose name comes from the words Helios (Sun) and kentron (center), the Sun is the center of the universe, rather than the Earth. Other heavenly bodies also revolve around the Sun. Yet this was all revealed 1400 years ago in the Qur'an.

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