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How Fossils Refute Darwinism

Millions of Fossils Refute the Theory of Evolution

Adnan Oktar (Harun Yahya)

The Author and His Works

Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primaryand secondary education in Ankara, he studied fine arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.

Harun Yahya's works, translated into 73 different languages, constitute a collection for a total of more than 65,000 pages with 45,000 illustrations.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought against their peoples' lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his books' covers is symbolicand is linked to their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and Prophet Muhammad (saas), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet [saas]), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of irreligious ideologies and to have the "last word," so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet (saas), who attained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues such as God's existence and unity and the Hereafter; and to expose irreligious systems' feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.

Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken in Maldives), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many people recovering faith in God and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for God's right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God, render an invaluable service.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological confusion, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. The success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. by the will of God, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.

First Edition: February 2016

Second Edition: March 2017

Third Edition: June 2017

Published by:


Kayışdağı Mah. Değirmen Sok. No: 3

Ataşehir - İstanbul / Turkey

Tel: +90.216.6600059

Printed by:

Acar Matbaacılık

Promosyon ve Yayıncılık San ve Tic Ltd Şti.

Litros Yolu Fatih Iş Merkezi No: 280

Topkapı - İstanbul / Turkey

Tel: +90.212.6134041

All translations from the Qur'an are from
The Noble Qur'an: A New Rendering of its Meaning in English
by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork,
Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.

Abbreviation used:

(pbuh): Peace be upon him (following a reference to the prophets) / -

Twitter: @harun_yahya ---- @adnan_oktar


Instagram: harunyahya_a9

To the Reader

*. A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation—and therefore, God's existence—over the last 150 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read only one of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.

*. All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite readers to learn God's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning God's verses are explained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.

*. This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and experiences to one another.

*. In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of God. The author's books are all extremely convincing. for this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to read these books.

*. We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.

*. In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart.


Fossil Records Refute Evolution

Darwin Was Mistaken: Species Have Never Changed

The Claim of Intermediate-Form Fossils Is a Deception

The Fossil Record Verifies Creation:

The Starting Point of Punctuated Equilibrium

Cambrian Fossils and the Creation of Species

"Missing Link Discovered" Headlines Are an Unscientific Deception

Darwin's Illogical and Unscientific Formula


Fossil Specimens of Sea Creatures

Fossil Specimens of Plants

The Darwinist Deception on the Subject of Birds and the Origin of Flight

Fossil Specimens of Insects

Fossil Records Refute Evolution


In schools just about everywhere in the world, the biology textbooks used to teach students set out a false story of life. What students read under the heading of "The Theory of Evolution" in fact consists of totally faulty mechanisms, false proofs, conjectural illustrations and drawings, wrongly interpreted fossils and a spurious history of living things.

This myth, the subject of textbooks and repeated countless times by instructors every week, is regarded as so factual that hardly anyone exposed to an education feels the slightest doubt as to the accuracy of evolution. Students all imagine that they have received an education that will serve them in good stead throughout life. Such people will probably be bewildered to learn that they have been taught a lie on such an exceedingly important subject—one that includes the very meaning of life—under a scientific guise.

The fact is, however, that a determined effort is being made to impose this lie on the public, and being carried out all over the world. It is an invented and designed lie, being taught in all schools. False proofs and erroneous stories regarding the history of life are manufactured in the most of the media. Experts on the subject, even some Nobel-Prize winning scientists, espouse a lie and advocate a deception. The "history of life" that instructors have taught for so many years is a false scenario—an alliance perpetrating across the world a coordinated deception whose name is evolution.

The sole reason for this alliance's growing strength and the way it dominates school textbooks and occpies pride of place in the media is that it is based upon materialism. Darwinism, nourished by the materialist perspective that currently dominates the world, has been strengthened and brought to the fore with the help of that same mindset. (See the Religion of Darwinism by Harun Yahya.) the materialists have felt no qualms about presenting falsified evidence to the public. Because this comprehensive policy of deceit's objective is obvious: to turn people away from faith in God, to deny His existence and to depict matter as the only absolute reality!

The point that Darwinists ignore, however, is this: Living things were created! There is no such thing as evolution in the history of life. God is the Creator and Lord of all things. It is He Who creates matter and gives life to any entity. There is no other Creator than God, and no other power but Him. Therefore, there is nothing but proofs of the fact of Creation on Earth.

Darwinists encounter these proofs in every piece of research they perform when they attempt, but fail, to prove evolution, because there is no evidence that evolution ever happened. All they find is traces of a sudden, complex and sublime creation. False evidence does not support a false theory. On the contrary, it makes it even more untrustworthy and groundless. for the sake of keeping materialism alive, however, Darwinists continue with their deceptive methods, in the framework of a vicious circle.

But this, of course, has an end point—which has finally been reached. Evolution has been demolished with countless proofs. One of the greatest of these proofs are the "living fossils," whose numbers are being added to with every passing day. The fact that a life form has remained the same for 150 million years, never changing over even 300 million years, definitively eliminates the evolution scenario. Millions of living species, about which countless evolutionary scenarios have been produced, show fossilized evidence that they never evolved. What we now observe are living things that, according to Darwinists, should have undergone evolution. Yet the fossil specimens of those identical species document the fact that they have never undergone any evolution at all.

Living fossils are such powerful pieces of evidence that they demolish all Darwinist claims, refuting all the evolutionary nonsense taught in textbooks. They invalidate all the fake "intermediate" reconstructions in all museums of evolution, and show that the imaginary evolutionary scenarios in various Darwinist texts and articles are fabrications.

The fact that Darwinists manage to ignore all this does not eliminate the clear proofs in question. Living fossils, more of which are being discovered every day, have already eliminated the claim of evolution.

This book presents these important facts and the way that Darwinists squirm in the face of this evidence. You will see how this deception has been in a state of collapse ever since the time of Charles Darwin, who first proposed the theory. The examples of living fossils illustrated in this book represent just a small part of the evidence that reveals the invalidity of this great deception. Even though "living fossil" specimens are regularly excavated from just about every sedimentary stratum, just one of these specimens is sufficient to refute Darwinism.

The law of God totally demolishes the Darwinian order:

Or do they desire to dupe you? but the duped ones are those who do not believe. or do they have some deity other than God? Glory be to God above any idol they propose! if they saw a lump of heaven falling down, they would just say, "Banked-up clouds!" Leave them then until they meet their Day when they will be struck down by the Blast: The Day their ploys will not profit them at all and they will not be helped. (Surat at-Tur, 42-46)

Darwin Was Mistaken: Species Have Never Changed

Perhaps the greatest problem that he (Darwin) had to tackle was the means by which adaptive characteristics were passed on from generation to generation, for the principles of genetics were still to be discovered at the time of Darwin's death. A second problem he could not resolve related to the nature of the fossil record.1

Darwin gave the name of the "theory of evolution" to the hypothesis he developed, on the two expectations described by Douglas Ward in the extract cited above.

His first assumption was that the genes that give rise to different characteristics could be transmitted, in some imaginary manner, to subsequent generations, thus resulting in changes between species. His other surmise was that this series of imaginary changes would be preserved in the fossil record.

It was easyfor Darwin to claim that changes occurred in a living thing's anatomical features that were then transmitted to subsequent generations, eventually resulting in a new species. The mid-1800s, when Darwin produced his ideas, were a relatively "primitive" time scientifically. The study of genetics had not yet come into existence. The complexity of the celland its chromosomes, let alone DNA, had yet to be discovered. The glorious structure of the genes that determine all of a living thing's characteristics, the data contained by those genesand the sensitivity within them were all still completely unknown.

It was also easy for Darwin to trust that fossil record existing somewhere in the world would eventually confirm these hypothetical changes among species. According to his claims, intermediate form fossils did exist in the geologic layers, but had simply not yet been unearthed. at his time, the number of fossil specimens extracted from rocks was still very limited. Since no intermediate forms had as yet appeared, Darwin expected that one day in the future, people would start discovering these imaginary "missing links." All that was required was enough time and detailed studies to be carried out.

Darwin founded his theory on these two basic assumptions, but close inspection reveals no evidence or observation—because essentially, the theory of evolution was advanced for totally ideological reasons, not scientific ones. It was developed in order to turn people away from their faith in God and to offer them an alternative to the fact of Creation. It was an adaptation to natural history of the materialist logic being disseminated across the globe with that aim in mind. That the theory was being proposed in the name of science was accepted, again due to the primitive state of science at the time. The claim's illogicality was plain to see, but under the scientific standards of the era, evidence that would reveal the theory's entire lack of proof had not yet been understood.

The roughly one century and a half that followed rapidly provided countless scientific proofs that demonstrated the invalidity of Darwin's hypothesis and the fact that it was totally invalid. The facts revealed by the science of genetics completely eradicated the idea that species "descended" from one another through minute changes. Genes, as we now know, are exceedingly complex and delicate. Any mutation will have an adverse, damaging effect on them. It is therefore impossible for totally unconscious, random changes to occur in genes so that an organism's structure is converted into another with different functions.

The fossil record also represents a major disappointment for latter-day Darwinists. None of the intermediate form fossils that Darwin expected to be discovered some day in the future has actually been unearthed. The idea that the fossil record is "inadequate" is now no longer part of the Darwinist credo, because the Earth has yielded up almost all existing specimens. A large part of the planet has been investigated, and paleontology reveals that in fact, there is not one single example of a "transition." Living things that existed hundreds of millions of years ago have never changed in all that time.

The late Harvard University evolutionist paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould openly states that Darwin was in fact aware of this. as he wrote, "The fossil record had caused Darwin more grief than joy."2

The evolutionists Niles Eldredge and Ian Tattershall, of the American Museum of Natural History, have described their position in these terms:

... That individual kinds of fossils remain recognizably the same throughout the length of their occurrence in the fossil record had been known to paleontologists long before Darwin published his Origin. Darwin himself, . . . prophesied that future generations of paleontologists would fill in these gaps by diligent search . . . One hundred and twenty years of paleontological research later, it has become abundantly clear that the fossil record will not confirm this part of Darwin's predictions. nor is the problem a miserly fossil record. The fossil record simply shows that this prediction is wrong.

The observation that species are amazingly conservative and static entities throughout long periods of time has all the qualities of the emperor's new clothes: everyone knew it but preferred to ignore it. Paleontologists, faced with a recalcitrant record obstinately refusing to yield Darwin's predicted pattern, simply looked the other way.3

In short, Darwin arrived at his theory of evolution by deliberately ignoring all these impossibilities, even though they were known well enough at the time. There is no scientific possibility of useful genetic changes taking place by way of random effects on species, or of them being transmitted on to subsequent generations. Fossils do not reveal any such changes, and exhibit not even a single one of all the hypothetical intermediate forms that should have existed over the course of hundreds of millions of years.

That being the case, what scientific evidence keeps the theory of evolution alive?

There is none! This once again shows that the reasons to support Darwinism are ideological, rather than scientific. The scientific protocol requires that a hypothesis should first be stated, and then turned into a law only after proofs are supplied. However, this does not apply to evolution, where there is not a single piece of evidence to support the theory. Nonetheless, it still maintains its place in textbooks and still appears in the media, in highly misleading reports. It is protected by laws and preserved through the logic of "it is immutable, and no decision against it can be made." the sole reason for this is that the theory of evolution is a dogmatic belief, not a scientific thesis.

The fossil record constantly refutes Darwinism's claims and points to the fact of Creation. All Darwinists' efforts to prove otherwise have ended in failure. The evidence in the sedimentary rocks documents and clearly declares that living things never underwent evolution. Two of the greatest proofs of this are—again—the absence of any intermediate form fossils and the stagnant "stasis" in the fossil record itself.

The Claim of Intermediate-Form Fossils Is a Deception

The evolutionist Dr. David Raup, curator of geology at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, has this to say:

Darwin's theory of natural selection has always been closely linked to evidence from fossils, and probably most people assume that fossils provide a very important part of the general argument that is made in favor of darwinian interpretations of the history of life. Unfortunately, this is not strictly true.4

Visitors to any natural history museum encountered intense evolutionist propaganda. They are shown imaginary reconstructions and false handmade bones that supposedly belong to our imaginary forebears. A single fossilized fragment of a once-living thing, which constitutes no evidence for evolution, is depicted as highly important "intermediate form evidence" of the fictitious transition from fish to amphibian. A rib bone—that obviously confirms the fact of Creation but which evolutionists misinterpret and portray as "proof of evolution"—is exhibited with enormous pride. Based on the detailed descriptions of supposed fossils and the Latin names given them, a great many of those who examine these things are convinced that they are dealing with an evolutionary fact. Yet the museums' true objective is to give the impression that something exists when in fact it does not, and to display propaganda regarding something that has no existence at all.

Evolutionists imagine that they can attain their objectives by these methods, because museum visitors are unaware that there is not one single intermediate-form fossil to support the theory of evolution—and that living fossils that have remained unchanged for millions of years, contrary to the claims of the theory of evolution, lie concealed in storage areas, often directly beneath the displays themselves.

In fact, the efforts made by evolutionists are all hollow. No intermediate-form fossils documenting evolution on Earth have ever been discovered. There remains not the slightest trace of these imaginary, peculiar and semi-developed creatures that should have existed over the course of millions of years. The evolutionary process is merely a belief—a hope that Darwinists wish would come true. Yet the fossil record has never permitted this dream to become a reality. Countless fossils have been unearthed from just about all over the world. Yet the intermediate-form fossils that were missing in Darwin's time are just as absent today. and it is impossible that they can ever be found, because evolution has never happened. by inventing fictitious theories, constructing their own imaginary intermediate forms out of plaster and bakelite, and producing "reconstructions" and "artist's conceptions" to illustrate the supposed lives of those intermediate forms, Darwinists seek to breathe life into a supposed evolution.

The fact is, however, that their efforts can never bear fruit. Conditions now are different from those in Darwin's time. Scientific facts are now emerging into the light, and new discoveries constantly reveal proofs of the fact of Creation. No Darwinist can any longer maintain that the fossil record is insufficient. Scientific data and the fossil record have revealed incontrovertible facts. The absence of any intermediate fossils is too obvious for evolutionists to cover up any longer.

In the journal Science, D.S. Woodroff of California University sets out this grave disappointment suffered by evolutionists:

But fossil species remain unchanged throughout most of their history and the record fails to contain a single example of a significant transition. 5

In the strata in which they conduct their hunt for intermediate-form fossils, Darwinists continually find fossils of living things that never underwent any changes over the course of millions of years and were never subjected to evolution. The proofs of the fact of creation number millions every day, but the intermediate-form fossils that evolutionists have been expecting with such anticipation are nowhere to be seen. They have therefore had to make do with portraying what are actually proofs of the fact of creation as being intermediate-form fossils. Using various propaganda techniques, they attempt to depict highly developed and complex life forms dating back millions of years as evidence for their own theory. by submitting their biased interpretations of fossils, they tried to describe a bird's highly developed, complex wings as merely "developing," and the fins of a fish as future legs of a creature preparing to emerge onto dry land. by such means, they sought to portray the coelacanth as an example of the transition from water to dry land, and Archaeopteryx as a reptile moving from the ground to the air.

Yet even these fossilized remains show that these creatures possessed exceedingly complex features, but no intermediate ones. Indeed, when a living coelacanth—one of the life forms that had been the subject of such evolutionist speculation—was caught in deep water in 1938, some 400 million years later than fossilized specimens, this shattered all evolutionist dreams.

Evolutionists are suffering a similar disappointment when it comes to Archaeopteryx, which scientific research has shown to be a full-fledged bird. Evolutionists were speechless when Archaeopteryx, depicted for many years as the crucial evidence for the imaginary transition from ground to the air, was discovered to have had flawless flight muscles, feathers ideally suited to flight, and a perfect wing structure.

Other incidents that revealed the intermediate-form predicament facing evolutionists were Piltdown Man and Nebraska Man, once also depicted as supposed evidence of evolution. Faced with complete hopelessness caused by the absence of intermediate forms, evolutionists went so far as to attach an orangutan's jaw onto the skull of a recently deceased human. They named it Piltdown Man and exhibited this forgery for the next 40 years. This hoax fossil, displayed in the British Museum, was hurriedly removed once the deception involved came to light.

Nebraska Man was the subject of countless imaginary illustrations and reconstructions—all based on a single tooth! Looking at just that single tooth, evolutionists claimed that this had come from an intermediate-form fossil that combined human and ape features. but this tooth was later determined to belong to a wild boar. Similarly, the fossils that countless museum visitors encounter as supposed "evidence of evolution" are the product of just such fraudulent logic.

The evolutionist paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson, of the American Museum of Natural History, admits the intermediate-form problem confronting evolutionists:

This is true of all thirty-two orders of mammals . . . The earliest and most primitive known members of every order already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an approximately continuous sequence from one order to another known. In most cases the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the origin of the order is speculative and much disputed. . .

This regular absence of transitional forms is not confined to mammals, but is an almost universal phenomenon, as has long been noted by paleontologists. It is true of almost all classes of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate . . . it is true of the classes, and of the major animal phyla, and it is apparently also true of analogous categories of plants.6

Despite their total lack of evidence, evolutionists still maintain that "Living things evolved." This claim involves millions of species that cannot possibly have existed, much less emerged. Yet evolutionists maintain that they developed during the course of a process—evolution—that cannot be explained. The impossibility of protein emerging spontaneously in a mindless environment has been proven. Yet according to evolution, such a miracle did take place, and protein came into existence as the result of chance.

It is also impossible for all the cell's organelles to have come into being together coincidentally. Yet according to evolution, that is just what happened. That miracle also took place—leading to the cell nucleus, genes, DNA, enzymes and countless other complex structures that cannot be produced artificially today, even under controlled laboratory conditions. Yet according to evolution, they all emerged through blind chance.

Evolutionists are now sorting through the fossil record for any traces of this process and the changes involved. Yet again according to evolutionists, yet another miracle must have taken place—and all these traces in the fossil record have disappeared!

The logic involved in their argument is this: Evolution emerges from a list of millions of impossibilities that, according to evolution, came about as the result of blind, unconscious coincidences. Darwinism, though it denies God and any supernatural events and phenomena, has no qualms about claiming that millions of living organisms came into being through a series of miracles. Thus the theory of evolution, portrayed as scientific, is in fact a belief that adopts countless miracles and coincidences as its multitudinous deities.

The theory of evolution has been unable to prove that a single protein could have come into existence spontaneously. Evolutionists are at a dead-end even before reaching the stage of the cell. That is because the probability of just a single protein, an essential building block of the cell, coming into being by chance is mathematically "0."

The main reason for this is the need for other proteins to be present if one protein is to form, and this completely eradicates the possibility of chance formation. This fact by itself is sufficient to eliminate the evolutionist claim of chance right from the outset. to summarize,

1. Proteins cannot be synthesized without enzymes, and enzymes are all proteins.

2. Around 60 proteins assuming the task of an enzyme need to be present for a single protein to be synthesized. Therefore, proteins are essential for proteins to exist.

3. DNA manufactures the protein-synthesizing enzymes. Proteins cannot be synthesized without DNA. DNA is therefore also needed for proteins to form.

4. All the organelles in the cell have important tasks in protein synthesis. In other words, for proteins to form, a complete and fully functioning cell needs to exist with all its organelles.

Faced by this lack of evidence, Darwinists keep expanding their fraudulent methods. but people are becoming much more aware that evolution keeps being taught for entirely ideological reasons, not scientific ones. Darwinists want to give the impression that intermediate-form fossils exist when they truly do not, and they hide proofs of the fact of Creation away in museum vaults. Why? the reason is obvious: They are well aware of the countless and incontrovertible proofs of the existence of God, the Lord of all the worlds. and since they are struggling to deny the existence of God, they attempt to conceal the facts. However, God manifests His own existence with countless proofs—and constantly foils Darwinists' plans.

Do they not see how We come to the land eroding it at its extremities. God judges and there is no reversing His judgment. He is swift at reckoning. Those before them plotted but all plotting belongs to God. He knows what each self earns, and the ones who do not believe will soon know who has the Ultimate Abode. (Surat ar-Ra'd, 41-42)

Evolutionists Claim That Intermediate-Form Organisms with Abnormal Structures Once Lived, but Not a Single One of Their Fossils Exists

The theory of evolution claims that living things developed or "descended" into other life forms under the effects of mutations. Modern science, however, has made it clear that this is a grave deception. There is not a single intermediate form to indicate that modern life forms have diversified through minute changes.

According to the theory of evolution, all the species now living and that have ever lived on Earth are all descended from one another. According to that theory, the transition from one species to another took place slowly and progressively. Therefore, according to this claim, various life forms representing a transition between two species and bearing some of the features of each must have existed once. According to evolutionist claims, for example, life forms with vestigial gills and rudimentary lungs, with appendages that are half fins and half feet, must have existed for millions of years between fish could finally emerge—and survive—on dry land, before turning into reptiles. Evolutionists refer to these imaginary creatures they believe once lived in the past as "intermediate forms."

Were the theory of evolution actually true, then many such creatures must have existed in the past. Their numbers and types must have numbered in the millions, even in the billions. and the remains of at least a few of these monstrous life forms should be found in the fossil record.

However, to date not a single intermediate form fossil has ever been encountered. Indeed, Charles Darwin, who first proposed the theory, wrote this in the chapter "Difficulties on Theory" in his book the Origin of Species:

... Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined? . . . But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth? . . . Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory. 7

Challenged by Darwin's own words, evolutionist paleontologists from the mid-19th century to the present day have carried out fossil research all over the world in search of intermediate forms. Yet despite all their efforts, such forms have never been found. All the findings from the excavations and research carried out shows that, contrary to the theory of evolution's expectations, all species appeared on the Earth suddenly, perfectly formed and in a flawless manner.

The well-known British paleontologist Derek Ager admits as much, despite his advocating the theory of evolution:

The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find—over and over again—not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another.8

Mark Czarnecki, another evolutionist paleontologist, makes a similar comment:

A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the imprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth's geological formations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin's hypothetical intermediate variants—instead species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God.9

In his book the Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong, the well-known biologist Francis Hitching says:

If we find fossils, and if Darwin's theory was right, we can predict what the rock should contain; finely graduated fossils leading from one group of creatures to another group of creatures at a higher level of complexity. The "minor improvements" in successive generations should be as readily preserved as the species themselves. but this is hardly ever the case. In fact, the opposite holds true, as Darwin himself complained; "innumerable transitional forms must have existed, but why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth?" Darwin felt though that the "extreme imperfection" of the fossil record was simply a matter of digging up more fossils. but as more and more fossils were dug up, it was found that almost all of them, without exception, were very close to current living animals. 10

As stated by Darwin and the others quoted above, the fact that not a single intermediate form fossil has been unearthed to date clearly reveals the invalidity of the theory of evolution. Because first of all, had living things turned into other life forms, they should have left a large number of intermediate forms during their transition process, and all around the world, the fossil record should be full of these intermediate forms in various stages of evolution. The fact is, however, that of the 700 million or so fossils unearthed so far, all belong to fully formed, complete life forms.

The fossil record shows that living species emerged instantaneously, with all their different structures, and have remained unchanged over very long geological periods. Stephen Jay Gould, the Harvard University paleontologist and evolutionist, admitted this in these words:

The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism:

1. Stasis. Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directionless. 2. Sudden appearance. In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and "fully formed." 11

Had evolution really taken place, the Earth should be full of billions of intermediate fossils. What is more, because of the effects of mutations, these life forms, numbering in the millions, should be extremely abnormal in appearance.

According to evolutionist claims, all living things—and all the organs they possess—formed as a result of random mutations. if that were so, an organ beginning with an abnormal structure should have been subjected to many mutations while its functions were developing. Any such organ should have assumed one abnormal state after another at each and every stage. Before assuming the perfect and pleasing appearances they display today, the living things in question must have endured abnormal structures and looked very ungainly. for example, before the highly symmetrical human face emerged with its two ears, two eyes, nose and mouth, there must have been a very large number of abnormal faces with imperfect symmetry, with several ears and eyes, a nose between the eyes or on the jaw, with some eyes on the back of the head or on the cheeks, with a nose where an ear ought to be, extending as far as the neck, and millions or even billions of other defects. Indeed, before that stage was ever reached, there must have been odd life forms with an ear on the soles of their feet or an eye in their back, their mouths on their stomachs, with two or three brains, unable to stand because they had not yet developed knee caps, with three or five arms on one side of their body instead of one, or whose foot bones ran from side to side instead of back to front to enable them to stand properly.

If Darwinists' claims were true, then chance and mutations should give rise to considerable lack of proportion, imbalance and peculiarity in the perfect and magnificent human body. They should produce many abnormalities such as a skull growing from the hip, more than one arm sprouting from the shoulder, and a large number of ribs or pelvic bones. Arm and leg bones should be lopsided, instead of being straight as we see them today. Yet not a single such fossil specimen has ever been discovered. The bodies of all the billions of human beings who have ever lived or who are living today have all possessed the same symmetry, balance and order. This demolishes Darwinist claims of "gradual development" as a result of chance and mutations.

If living things had assumed their present structures and appearances through tens of thousands of minute changes, then countless fossil specimens should document this illusory development. Abnormal entities with two brains, three backbones, four eyes, two jaws, three noses, seven fingers and three legs should be in evidence. Yet all the fossils found to date show that human beings have always been human beings.

Yet not a single example exists. A great many human fossils with two, three or four heads; with hundreds of eyes like insects, with several arms and even arms two or three meters in length and many other such abnormalities should have been found. Similarly, there should be abnormal specimens from every plant and animal species. Intermediate fossils of all marine creatures should also have engendered abnormal individuals. Yet there exists not a single one. All the millions of fossils belong to perfectly normal living things.

The Fossil Record Verifies Creation:

Stasis in the Fossil Record

Paleontologists conducting research in ancient strata encounter very important fossils that are millions of years old, yet the duplicates of living spiders, flies, frogs, turtles and fish. According to the theory of evolution, these life forms should have exhibited changes over the course of millions of years. They lived in the most ancient periods in the most complex forms, and have come down unchanged to the present day. In other words, they never evolved. There is a stasis or stability in the fossil record, which—according to evolutionists—should not be there at all.

Darwin foresaw that life forms that had remained the same for untold millions of years would represent a major difficulty for his theory, and he frequently referred to this. These special species were even given the name of "living fossils" by Darwin himself!

The evolutionist paleontologist Peter Douglas Ward emphasizes this problem of Darwin's:

Still, Darwin's central tenet was that most organisms have changed through time. but did they all change at the same rate, or did the rate of change vary? Darwin was sure that it varied, for he could point to a host of creatures that were quite similar to fossils he had seen, some from very old strata indeed. Darwin confronted this problem several times. Although he seems satisfied with the explanation he gives in the Origin of Species, the very fact that he repeatedly brings these "living fossils" to the attention of his readers suggests that he was not entirely comfortable with the phenomenon. He writes, for example: "In some cases . . . lowly organised forms appear to have been preserved to the present day, from inhabiting confined or peculiar stations, where they have been subjected to less severe competition, and where their scanty numbers have retarded the chance of favorable variations arising." Nevertheless, the existence of living fossils, a term that he coined, continued to puzzle him, and provided a weapon for his numerous critics to wield against him.12

Darwin described the living things in question as "lowly organised forms" and for that reason, attempted to portray the issue as a very minor one by ascribing a supposed justification for their survival. Yet these fossils are identical to present-day specimens. They have exceedingly developed characteristics. and their survival cannot be explained away with the few pretexts that even Darwin had difficulty in believing.

for those who came after Darwin, the problem was far less limited than it had been back in Darwin's own day. The number of fossils unearthed from a great many of the Earth's strata was growing into the millions. Their search for intermediate forms ended in the discovery of living fossils: Remains emerged from strata millions of years old in the same forms that their living counterparts possess today, and this represents one of the most significant proofs of the state of collapse facing the theory of evolution.

Darwin may have been uneasy at the existence of living fossils in his own day, but he remained unaware of just how wide-ranging they were, and was ignorant of how many such fossilized specimens would emerge in future years. Later years constantly produced specimens of living fossils instead of the intermediate forms that Darwin expected, which dealt a major disappointment to him and his theory.

So far, over millions of living fossils have been unearthed from the Earth's strata. While some of these are given prominence in the media, the great majority has been consigned to the vaults of various museums. However, the existence of living fossils is too great to be covered up by hiding them away because every fossil-bearing stratum investigated constantly produces new specimens of living fossils. Those who follow developments in the press may imagine that there are only a very few living fossils, and are unearthed only rarely. Yet that is not at all the case. These fossils—earlier representatives of present-day life forms, but millions of years old—are found everywhere.

This stasis in the fossil record, for which Darwin was unable to account, couldn't be explained by those who came after Darwin, either. Initially, evolutionists maintained that (for example) 350-million-year-old cockroaches had remained unchanged because "They were able to live in all environments and feed in all kinds of ways."

Evolutionists almost never discussed the question of how a 350-million-year-old insect first emerged complete, with all its complex features in a period that was, according to the evolutionists themselves, exceedingly primitive. They deliberately ignored the fact that no matter how well it had adapted to its environment, this insect should nevertheless, according to the claim of the theory of evolution, have gradually developed.

Then other similar claims were subsequently made for other life forms. Although a tuatara lizard 200 million years old had come down unchanged to the present day, they still maintained that all living things underwent gradual evolution. Yet for some reason, this claim did not apply to rapidly-multiplying cockroaches and to archaebacteria—which can multiply even in minutes, but of which fossils have been found dating back 3.5 billion years!

That is why evolutionists attach prominent importance to only some living fossils. Making up unscientific, illogical and inconsistent justifications for a few examples is nothing out of the ordinary for evolutionists. if all living fossils were given equal prominence, it would be neither possible nor credible to make up a justification for the existence of every single one.

New Scientist magazine described evolutionists' constant need to find invalid excuses, and the way that these failed to bear any fruit, by saying that "Evolutionary constraint can't explain the persistence of all the living fossils." the magazine then went on to say:

All this leaves a rather complicated picture . . . Be general, or specialised. Live fast, or slow. Keep it simple, or don't. Be in the right place at the right time. if all else fails, try becoming a "superspecies", blessed with a physiology that can withstand anything.13

To put it another way, Darwinists are ready to ascribe the existence of living fossils to any cause apart from the fact of Creation. if all their explanations fail to hold water, they will then regard a particular organism as a "superspecies," as is clearly stated by New Scientist. The only thing that may not be done, in Darwinist eyes, is to admit that the life form in question was originally "created."

These inconsistent claims—which Darwin hid behind and that present-day Darwinists generally avoid mentioning—have been totally demolished in the face of the extraordinarily large numbers of fossils exhibiting stasis. There are more "living fossils" than evolutionists can dream up scenarios for, and they clearly indicate that evolution never took place.

According to evolutionary theory, an animal resembling a modern-day wolf entered the sea one day, and within 50 million years, its descendants turned into a gigantic marine mammal as the whale.14 If, despite its evident illogicality, evolution is able to turn a land mammal into a whale in such a relatively brief space of geologic time, how could the salamander remain unchanged for 160 million years? No evolutionist has any scientific answer to that question.

Moreover, this applies not just to the salamander, but also to countless species and examples of living fossils today, and you shall be seeing specimens of these in later chapters of this book. Countless specimens confirm the stasis in the fossil record, as stated by the evolutionist Niles Eldredge, a paleontologist from the American Museum of Natural History:

Stasis is now abundantly well documented as the preeminent paleontological pattern in the evolutionary history of species.15

The specimens discovered prove that millions of years ago, a great many living things had the same anatomical features as they do today. In fact, as much so that 84% of the insect family that existed 100 million years ago is also alive today.16 the botanist Margaret Helder cites Niles Eldredge's views and describes this magnificent diversity in living fossils thus:

Characterization of an organism as a living fossil basically depends upon the degree of similarity the viewer seeks between living and fossil creatures. if the definition is in terms of general categories of organism, such as sponges in general, or ferns in general, or even specific groups of ferns, then, says Niles Eldredge, ". . . by such a yardstick, virtually everything is a living fossil."17 Whether one allows one's definition to be this broad or not, it is safe to conclude that living fossils are not rare. 18

No doubt, the emergence of these life forms in large numbers comes as no surprise to any rational individual. if people can see that God has created all living things, then they can also understand the proofs that manifest themselves in the fossil record. Throughout the history of life, organisms did not evolve, but emerged suddenly and with the most complex and most perfect features.

This goes to show that all living things are created. It is easy for God to create a living thing that exists today with the same astounding characteristics that He also created millions of years ago. for those able to appreciate this, the existence of living fossils is one of the proofs of God's creation. The Earth provides no evidence of evolution as claimed by Darwin, but confirms the fact of Creation. Niles Eldredge is just one of the evolutionists who admit as much:

Simple extrapolation does not work. I found that out back in the 1960s as I tried in vain to document examples of the kind of slow, steady directional change we all thought ought to be there, ever since Darwin told us that natural selection should leave precisely such a telltale signal as we collect our fossils up cliff faces. I found instead, that once species appear in the fossil record, they tend not to change much at all. Species remain imperturbably, implacably resistant to chance as a matter of course.19

All this goes to show that evolutionist claims along the lines of "evidence in the fossil record," "the evolutionary process," and "gradual or punctuated change in living things" are all mere speculation. Nobody looking at the facts can believe such Darwinian conjecture—speculative claims that are demolished in a more detailed manner in subsequent chapters.

Pierre-Paul Grassé, the world-famous French zoologist and evolutionist, sets out the evolution error in question:

The "evolution in action" of J. Huxley and other biologists is simply the observation of demographic facts, local fluctuations of genotypes, geographical distributions. Often the species concerned have remained practically unchanged for hundreds of centuries! Fluctuation as a result of circumstances, with prior modification of the genome, does not imply evolution, and we have tangible proof of this in many panchronic species [i.e. living fossils that remain unchanged for millions of years]...20

It is essential for governments in countries where living fossil specimens are unearthed to give them prominence and present them to the world as important scientific evidence. Otherwise, a conception that flies in the face of the scientific facts—in other words, the theory of evolution—will continue to enjoy blind support by way of propaganda and deception. The fossil record documenting the history of life on Earth demonstrates that living things never evolved, but appeared suddenly together with all their complex characteristics. In other words, fossils document the fact of Creation.

The Starting Point of Punctuated Equilibrium

Those who came after Darwin made enormous efforts to detect in the fossil record examples of the slow and gradual evolution that he foresaw. Darwin had ascribed their absence to the "insufficiency of the fossil record." the fossil record—which, in fact, provided a broad range of specimens even in his own day and shows the existence of all complex life forms as early as the Cambrian Explosion—continued to be the subject of research by evolutionists hoping to discover a miracle. Their objective was to prove Darwin correct, to demonstrate that the fossil record in his time truly was insufficient, and to find examples of intermediate forms, evidence that living things did undergo evolution.

Yet the fossil record constantly produced results at variance with Darwin's expectations. Practically the entire globe was scoured, and the new fossils excavated were no longer "insufficient." Darwin had been wrong when he said that he believed that those who came after him would eventually find the intermediate forms that he expected. The fossil record produced not one single intermediate-form specimen. Instead, it revealed the fact that countless living things had undergone no evolution at all, had remained unchanged for many millions of years, together with all their many complex structures. The fossil record refuted Darwin. The lack of intermediate forms and the fact of stasis very definitely constituted no evidence for gradual evolution.

Some evolutionists clearly saw and admitted that Darwin's model of gradual evolution was untenable in the face of the reality of stasis. They then proposed that evolution "operated in a different way." in 1970, the Harvard University paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge of the American Museum of Natural History developed an alternative theory, known as "punctuated evolution," which they published in 1972. Their sole aim was to account for the stasis phenomenon.

In fact, this theory was an adaptation of the "Hopeful Monster" theory put forward in the 1930s by the European paleontologist Otto Schindewolf. He had suggested that living things evolved as the result of sudden, dramatic mutations rather than the gradual accumulation of small ones. In citing a hypothetical example of his theory, Schindewolf suggested that the first bird in history had emerged from a reptile egg, through a "gross mutation," in other words, an enormous, though random change in its genetic structure.34 According to that same theory, some terrestrial mammals might suddenly have turned into whales through a sudden and comprehensive alteration.

These claims violate all known laws of genetics, biophysics and biochemistry, and were no more scientific than the fairy tale about a frog turning into a handsome prince. Still, this "Hopeful Monster" theory of Schindewolf's was adopted and defended in the 1940s by the University of California, Berkeley geneticist Richard Goldschmidt. but the theory was so inconsistent that it was soon abandoned.

The impetus that obliged Gould and Eldredge to take up this theory again was, as we have already seen, the lack of any "intermediate form" in the fossil record. Both the "stasis" and "sudden appearance" in the record were so obvious that these two were forced to reconsider the "Hopeful Monster" theory in order to account for this state of affairs. Gould's well-known article "The Return of Hopeful Monsters" was an expression of this forced about-turn. 35

Naturally, Eldredge and Gould did not repeat Schindewolf's theory word for word. In order to give it a more "scientific" nature, they sought to develop some kind of mechanism for the "sudden evolutionary leap" they proposed. (The interesting term "punctuated equilibrium" which they gave to their theory was one expression of this scientific endeavor.) Gould and Eldredge's theory was adopted and fleshed out by some other paleontologists in the years that followed. However, the punctuated theory of evolution was at least as marred with inconsistencies and invalid logic as Darwin's original gradual theory of evolution.

Proponents of gradual evolution ignored stasis. but stasis is constantly seen in the fossil record, proving that living things remained unchanged over millions of years. The only difference between Gould and Eldredge and other Darwinists is that the former two realized that the stasis in the fossil record was an incontrovertible fact that could no longer be left unanswered. Rather than admit the fact of Creation revealed by the fossil record, they felt themselves obliged to develop a new concept of evolution.

Stephen Jay Gould said this on the subject:

But how can imperfection possibly explain away stasis (the equilibrium of punctuated equilibrium)? Abrupt appearance may record an absences of information, but *stasis is data*. Eldredge and I became so frustrated by the failure of many colleagues to grasp this evident point—-though a quarter century of subsequent debate has finally propelled our claim to general acceptance (while much else about punctuated equilibrium remains controversial)—that we urged the incorporation of this little phrase as a mantra or motto. Say it ten times before breakfast every day for a week, and the argument will surely seep in by osmosis: "stasis is data: stasis is data..." 36

Gould, Eldredge and other advocates of punctuated evolution fiercely criticized the proponents of gradual evolution for failing to see the reality of stasis. but in fact, what they were doing was no different from the actions of other Darwinists. Since the fossil record had failed to produce the results they expected, they changed the form of so-called evolution and constructed it in a very detailed manner. The main reason for their anger toward, and intense criticism of, the adherents of gradual evolution was that as long as their professional colleagues failed to accept the stasis in the fossil record, they would cause the theory to lose all credibility in the public eye. for that reason, they attempted to give the impression that they had now "discovered the truth" in the face of the clear facts revealed by the fossil record.

The fact is, however, that the punctuated evolution model is at least as groundless, devoid of evidence, and ultimately discredited as the gradual evolution theory.

Gould's admissions regarding "the mistaken perspective in the past" are criticisms aimed at the supporters of gradual evolution:

We have long known about stasis and abrupt appearance, but have chosen to fob it off upon an imperfect fossil record.37

As Niles Eldredge describes it, the supporters of gradual evolution ignored one very important fact:

Paleontologists ever since Darwin have been searching (largely in vain) for the sequences of insensibly graded series of fossils that would stand as examples of the sort of wholesale transformation of species that Darwin envisioned as the natural product of the evolutionary process. Few saw any reason to demur—though it is a startling fact that . . . most species remain recognizably themselves, virtually unchanged throughout their occurrence in geological sediments of various ages.38

Niles Eldredge and the archaeologist Ian Tattershall of the American Museum of Natural History underlined how Darwin's idea of evolution had been disproved by the stasis in the fossil record:

Darwin's prediction of rampant, albeit gradual, change affecting all lineages through time is refuted. The record is there, and the record speaks for tremendous anatomical conservation. Change in the manner Darwin expected is just not found in the fossil record.39

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