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Prophet Solomon (pbuh)

Harun Yahya

We gave [to] David Solomon. What an excellent servant! He truly turned to his Lord. (Qur’an, 38:30)

About the Author

Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, he was born in Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary education in Ankara, he studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought against their people's lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and the Prophet Muhammad (May God bless him and grant him peace), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of godless ideologies and to have the last word, so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet, who attained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues such as God's Existence and Unity and the hereafter; and to expose godless systems' feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.

Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, and Spain to Brazil. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, and Indonesian.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many people recovering faith in God and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for God's right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God, render an invaluable service.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological chaos, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. The success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. by the will of God, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.

Title : Prophet Solomon


Translated by Ron Evans

Edited by Jay Willoughby


Address : Gursel Mah. Darulaceze Caddesi No: 9

Funya Sk. Eksioglu Is Merkezi B Blok D. 5

Okmeydani - Istanbul / Turkey

Tel: +90 212 320 8600

All translations from the Qur'an are from the Noble Qur'an:a New Rendering of its Meaning in English by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999AH.

To the Reader

A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation—and therefore, God's Existence—over the last 140 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the chance to read only one of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.

All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite readers to learn God's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning God's verses are explained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensure that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.

This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and experiences to one another.

In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of God. The author's books are all extremely convincing. for this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to read these books.

We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.

In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart.



Prophet Solomon (pbuh)

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Superior Knowledge and Blessing

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Mighty Kingdom and Powerful Army

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Superior Moral Character

Harut and Marut

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and the Queen of Saba

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Death

The Jinns and Animals under Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Command

Similarites between Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh)

Two Administrations Described in the Qur'an

The End of Saba

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) in the Old Testament

Similarities among Prophet Solomon (pbuh), Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), and the Mahdi


The Jinns in the Qur'an


The Deception of Evolution


The Qur'an was sent down to humanity as a guide to the right path and for obtaining God's mercy. It gives important knowledge about what Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace) did, his message to unbelievers, and his struggle to spread God's religion. It also gives important information about the lives of Prophet Moses, Prophet Joseph, Prophet Jesus, Prophet Jonah, Prophet Lot , Prophet Noah, Prophet Shu'aib, and Prophet Salih (peace be upon them all). Like our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace), they invited people to faith in God, warned them about the afterlife, and relayed true religion so that their people would adopt high moral standards.

Its verses advise and admonish people by describing the prophets' high morality, sincere prayers, behavior in difficult circumstances, and determined efforts to fulfill their mission. In addition, it advises people to obey His prophets and follow the path that they have shown, and announces the good tidings that as people advance along the path, they will live without fear or sorrow in this world and the world to come (Qur'an, 7:35). The Qur'an informs us that God sends prophets for one purpose:

We sent no Messenger except to be obeyed by God's permission… (Qur'an, 4:64)

One of these worthy individuals is Prophet Solomon (pbuh), a descendant of Prophet Noah (pbuh), who was given sublime knowledge of the right path by God. In the Qur'an, this command relating to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) is given:

and before him We had guided Noah. and among his descendants were David and Solomon, Job and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron. That is how We recompense the good-doers. (Qur'an, 6:84)

God sent Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to the Tribe of Israel to warn them and instill fear in them:

We have revealed to you, just as We revealed to Noah and the Prophets who came after him. and We revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Tribes, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon. and We gave David the Psalms. (Qur'an, 4:163)

As this book explains, God bestowed a great kingdom, incomparable wealth, a mighty army supported by jinns and birds, and superior knowledge upon Prophet Solomon (pbuh). He ruled justly throughout his life and, in his capacity as an administrator and a judge, brought many societies under his dominion. He was aware that God, Lord of the Worlds, is the true possessor of all knowledge, riches, and dominion, and so always turned to Him (Qur'an, 38:30), bowed to Him, and submitted to Him.

This book will acquaint people with Prophet Solomon (pbuh), whom God made superior to other human beings, and analyze this chosen servant's exemplary moral qualities. as we examine what the Qur'an says about him, we will see that each of his qualities can be related to our own lives.

We will also study Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) story for information about the End Times, a period during which the Qur'an's moral teachings will prevail; all immorality, oppression, cruelty, injustice, and degeneration of the past eras will vanish; anxiety will be replaced by every kind of blessing, abundance, wealth, beauty, peace, and well-being; and technological developments will provide human beings with happiness and comfort.

The hadiths contain many descriptions of the End Times. for example, God will destroy all atheistic philosophies and ideologies through the Mahdi, who will guide humanity to the right path, and bring all cruelty and chaos in the world to an end. The Mahdi's most important duty will be to restore religion to its original form under our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace), make the Qur'an's moral teaching prevail, and establish global peace and well-being. In the hadith below, our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) draws our attention to a quality that is shared by the Mahdi, Prophet Solomon (pbuh), and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh):

The Mahdi will rule Earth, just like Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) and Prophet Solomon (pbuh. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 29)

This hadith indicates that the Mahdi's rule will be similar to that of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh). Therefore, we can gather important information about the End Times and the ensuing Golden Age by examining the Qur'anic accounts of Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn's (pbuh) reigns. (For more details about the connection between the time of Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) and the End Times, consult Harun Yahya, Signs of the End Times in Surat al-Kahf [New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2004].) Developments in science and technology, as well as advances in economic and social life, that will be enjoyed in the End Times will be very similar to those mentioned in connection with Prophet Solomon (pbuh). The Qur'anic account will allow believers to understand what is happening in the world from a broader perspective, and thereby open their horizons. One of this book's goals is to encourage people to think about these good tidings of the End Times and to share the joy and excitement that it will bring.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh)

We gave knowledge to David and Solomon, who said: "Praise be to God, Who has favored us over many of His servants who are believers.” Solomon was David's heir… (Qur'an, 27:15-16)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was a son of Prophet David (pbuh), to whom God gave great knowledge, wealth and wisdom (Qur'an, 2:251), favor (Qur'an, 34:10), and to whom He revealed the Psalms. In the Qur'an, God decrees: "We gave [to] David Solomon” (Qur'an, 38:30).

We raise in rank anyone We will. Your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. We gave him [Abraham] Isaac and Jacob, each of whom We guided. and before him We had guided Noah. and among his descendants were David and Solomon, Job and Joseph, and Moses and Aaron. That is how We recompense the good-doers. and Zachariah, John, Jesus, and Elias—all of them were among the righteous. and Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah, and Lot—all of them We favored over all beings. and some of their forebears, descendants, and brothers—We chose them and guided them to a straight path. (Qur'an, 6:83-87)

As He did with Prophet David (pbuh), God sent Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to the Israelites. God put him on the right path, counted him as one of His faithful servants and made him superior to other people. In fact, God tells believers:

They are the ones God has guided, so be guided by their guidance. Say: "I do not ask you for any wage for it. It is simply a reminder to all beings.” (Qur'an, 6:90)

Like all other prophets, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) invited people to believe in God, avoid associating any other thing or being with Him, and obey His commands and recommendations.

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Superior Knowledge and Blessing

He [Solomon] said: "My Lord, forgive me and give me a kingdom the like of which will never be granted to anyone after me. Truly, You are the Ever-Giving.” (Qur'an, 38:35)

His prayer was accepted by God and He bestowed upon him great blessings, superior wisdom, more possessions than anyone else could attain, and a glorious kingdom in which he exercised an incomparable reign. Other verses give more information about his God-given wealth, power, and knowledge.

The Ability to Judge

We gave Solomon understanding of it [judgment]. We gave each of them judgment and knowledge... (Qur'an, 21:79)

When we examine the prophets' lives, we see clearly that God gave them superior wisdom to use in their conversations, decisions, and carrying out their decisions. Prophet Solomon (pbuh), a recipient of this divinely inspired judgment and knowledge, "judged with truth” (Qur'an, 38:26), like his father Prophet David (pbuh), and solved all disputes most justly.

And David and Solomon when they gave judgment about the field, when the people's sheep strayed into it at night. We were Witness to their judgment. (Qur'an, 21:78)

A system of justice, if it is to operate properly, must be directed by people with faith and who can judge justly. Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) time was one in which this understanding of justice was lived fully, for God says: "Every nation has a Messenger, and when their Messenger comes everything is decided between them justly. They are not wronged” (Qur'an, 10:47).

Two people who presided over hearings and gave just decisions were Prophet David (pbuh) and Prophet Solomon (pbuh).

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) words, upon learning that a hoopoe bird had disappeared without his permission, draws our attention to this matter:

He inspected the birds and said: "How is it that I do not see the hoopoe? or is it absent without leave? I will certainly punish it most severely or slaughter it if it does not bring me clear authority.” (Qur'an, 27:20-21)

This is just one example of his justice: He gave the hoopoe an opportunity to defend itself, listened to it carefully, and inflicted no sudden penalty. Instead, he waited for it to produce clear proof.

Solomon (pbuh) and the Language of Birds

God taught Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to speak the language of birds, and because of this, he formed an army squadron composed of birds. Thus, he established a relationship with them that allowed him to command them as he wished. Fully aware that this ability was the result of God's mercy, he explained to his people that this knowledge came from God and was not the result of his own effort. In this way, he clearly expressed his submission to, and need for, God.

O people, we have been taught the speech of birds and have been given everything. This is indeed a clear favor. (Qur'an, 27:16)

We can draw some important conclusions from this account:

Birds speak to one another on a special wave length that people cannot hear. God allowed Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to understand these conversations. This might have been made possible by technological means.

Since Prophet Solomon (pbuh) could understand these conversations, he may have given them special tasks to fulfill. (God knows the truth.)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) achieved important results by using birds to both carry messages and gather information. This knowledge facilitated communication with other countries and reaching distant areas. (God knows the truth.)

This verse may be drawing our attention to a superior technology similar to that which will be used in the End Times. In fact, these birds may not even refer to birds as we know them, but perhaps to unmanned aircrafts.

Besides this, he may have attached transmitters to them to obtain information about other countries and his enemies. In this way, he could have obtained images and sound recordings and used the information to govern his kingdom.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had power over jinns and demons, for the Qur'an states: "… and some of the jinns worked in front of him by his Lord's permission…" (Qur'an, 34:12) and "… some of the demons dived for him and did other things apart from that…" (Qur'an, 21:82). When considered from this point of view, it may have been an army made up of jinns that looked like birds.

Another probability is that these birds may have been controlled by jinns who Prophet Solomon (pbuh) could use to make the birds do what he wanted them to do.

The Qur'an is valid for all people until the end of the world. Therefore, similar things that happened during Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) reign may also be experienced in the End Times. for example, God may put these jinns under humanity's control once again. Again, the advanced technology indicated in this account may be a signal of what technology will bring to humanity in the End Times. (God knows the truth)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) Understands the Female Ant

Then, when they reached the Valley of the Ants, an [female] ant said: "Ants! Enter your dwellings so that Solomon and his troops do not crush you unwittingly." (Qur'an, 27:18)

This verse may be interpreted as follows:

The female ant knew that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and his army were entering the valley. This is an extremely conscious recognition. The fact that these ants could speak to one another and were aware of what was happening around them may indicate that these creatures may have been jinns. (God knows the truth.)

The ant mentioned here is not an ordinary ant, for the Valley of the Ants suggests a special place and special ants. This strengthens the possibility that they were jinns.

He [Solomon] smiled, laughing at its words, and said: "My Lord, keep me thankful for the blessing You have bestowed on me and my parents. Keep me acting rightly, pleasing You, and admit me, by Your mercy, among Your servants who are righteous." (Qur'an, 27:19)

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) ability to hear the ants talking among themselves may indicate a development that will occur in computer technology in the End Times.

The modern term Silicon Valley refers to the center of the world of technology. Thus, it is very significant that this verse mentions the Valley of the Ants. God may be drawing out attention to the advanced technology that will appear in the End Times.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) Commands the Winds

And to Solomon We gave the fiercely blowing wind, speeding at his command toward the land that We had blessed. and We had full knowledge of everything. (Qur’an, 21:81)

God allowed Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to control the wind and use it as a tool. This may be a reference to the use of wind energy in the End Times.

The phrase fiercely blowing wind under Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) command may be drawing our attention to the advanced aircraft technology that will be developed in the End Times.

And We gave Solomon power over the wind—a month's journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon... (Qur'an, 34:12)

The words … power over the wind—a month's journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon..., may indicate the fact that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) moved very quickly from place to place.

In his own time, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) may have used a technology similar to modern aircraft technology and developed wind-powered vehicles. by this means, he could cover huge distances in a short time. (God knows the truth.)

Indications of the Use of Electricity

and We made a fount of molten copper flow out for him… (Qur'an, 34:12)

One of the great blessings given to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was molten copper. This verse can be interpreted in several ways:

Using the demons and jinns at his command, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) might have made decorations, huge dishes, vats, and statues for general use (Qur'an, 34:13).

Molten copper may indicate a high level of technological development in Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) time: The use of electricity. as we know, copper is one of the best conductors of electricity and heat, and plays a significant role in producing electricity.

The great amounts of electricity produced in Prophet Solomon’s (pbuh) time could have been used in construction, communications, and many other areas. The words flow out may point to its widespread use. (God knows the truth.)

Many Qur'anic commentators have interpreted ayna al-qitri as referring to petroleum. Today, petroleum is the most basic raw material of technology. In his time, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) may have used it in technological operations. (God knows the truth.)

Jinns and Demons Obey Prophet Solomon (pbuh)

and some of the jinns worked in front of him by his Lord's permission. and if a single one of them deviates at all from Our command, We let him taste the punishment of the Searing Blaze. (Qur'an, 34:12)

Another God-given blessing was the number of jinns and demons that served Prophet Solomon (pbuh). Prophet Solomon (pbuh) ordered these beings to fulfill various functions in his army, artistic creations, and construction projects:

So We subjected the wind to him to blow at his command, softly, wherever he directed. and the demons, every builder and diver. (Qur'an, 38:36-37)

God bestowed His grace upon Prophet Solomon (pbuh) by enabling him to control the demons, because Satan had great knowledge about Earth and what happened in the world, whether secret or public. Having such a creature in his power may have made it much easier for Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to arrange his foreign relations and administer his kingdom.

And some of the demons dived for him [Solomon] and did other things apart from that. and We were watching over them. (Qur'an, 21:82)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) could have used these diving demons in many ways: to perform duties related to intelligence and the army, as well as to scientific undertakings (e.g., processing marine riches to benefit humanity).

This verse informs us of the importance of processing both underground and marine riches. but in order to extract and process these marine riches and make them useful for people, highly advanced technology is needed. Perhaps these demons had this technical knowledge and capability.

Thanks to the modern technological devices, vehicles, and submarines that God will put into the service of humanity in the End Times, extracting the oceans' wealth will be much easier. It is possible that the meaning of this verse points in this direction.

This verse may also be an assessment of the pearls, corals, and other special blessings to be found in the oceans. (God knows the truth).

At the end of the above verse, God reveals: "… We were watching over them…" in other words, these diving demons were under the control of God, the Lord of heavens and Earth. God gave Prophet Solomon (pbuh) a power from His own mercy that made the demons unable to rebel against him.

They made for him anything he wished: high arches and statues, huge dishes like cisterns, great built-in cooking vats… (Qur'an, 34:13)

This verse relates that demons created magnificent works of art according to Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) directions and very strong aesthetic sense.

Every Blessing Is a Grace from God

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) used all of his God-given power and possessions to represent and spread His religion in the best possible way, display the incomparable splendor of God's kingdom, and disseminate religious morality. When they saw his intelligence, knowledge, and artistic power, people more easily accepted his invitation to believe in God. Prophet Solomon (pbuh) received a fine reward for his service to God and a great kingdom. for thousands of years, Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) might and power have amazed people and been the subject of novels, paintings, and films.

This section has presented Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) God-given superior knowledge and blessings. However, one special point needs to be emphasized: The One Who gave all of these blessings and knowledge, and Who created all of them is God, the Lord of the Worlds. Everything that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) did was by God's will and approval. for example, God decrees: "We gave Solomon understanding of it" (Qur'an, 21:79), by which we can understand that no one can understand any event, notice any wisdom, or make any decision without God's consent. God, the All-Knowing, All-Wise, makes the decision; the person carrying it out is only a vehicle.

After announcing that the mountains and the birds bowed their heads with Prophet David (pbuh), Prophet Solomon’s (pbuh) father, the verse says: "This is something We are well able to do." God taught Prophet David (pbuh) how to make armor, made the wind bow before Him, and made molten copper flow at Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) command. In Qur'an 21:81, God decrees: "And We have full knowledge of everything." Unless God wills, it is impossible for any person to have knowledge. People may have read and studied for years and come to be regarded as knowledgeable, but they must never forget that only God gives them their knowledge as part of their destiny. The words of the angels in Qur'an 2:32 clearly express this reality: "Glory be to You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise."

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Mighty Kingdom and Powerful Army

Solomon's armies, made up of jinns and men and birds, were assembled for him, paraded in tight ranks. (Qur'an, 27:17)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had a mighty army, the likes of which had never been seen. It was composed of jinns, birds, and men, and was supported by a strong intelligence network.

This verse mentions armies, not army. The use of the plural form expresses his army's power and superior numbers.

His army was very disciplined, for the three groups that formed it worked together very harmoniously and without the slightest problem.

The support of jinns and demons gave Prophet Solomon (pbuh) a superior advantage over others, for these creatures could easily do what human beings could not. for example, one verse says: "He and his tribe see you from where you do not see them" (Qur'an, 7:27). Thus, the jinns were effective intelligence gatherers.

So We subjected the wind to him to blow at his command, softly, wherever he directed. and the demons, every builder and diver, and others of them, yoked together in chains. (Qur'an, 38:36-38)

The words yoked together in chains indicate that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had great power over the jinns and demons that served him.

This verse indicates that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had power over the religious jinns who submitted to God as well as over the unbelieving jinns. Not only did he render the demons and those whom they possessed, as well as unbelievers, harmless, but he also gave them various duties and made them serve Islam.

In this verse, God may be indicating that evil-intentioned individuals must be prevented from harming those who want to live according to Islam's morality. Making them serve God both prevents any possible damage and serves Islam.

This verse may imply that those individuals who oppress others and commit evil and malicious acts must be strictly controlled and prevented from mixing with others and stirring up strife.

In this verse, God may be hinting about the kind of punishment criminals will face in the End Times. In other words, they will be prevented from endangering society and will be made to benefit humanity.

The phrase yoked together in chains may be alluding to a security system similar to an electronic cuff or shackle that will be used in the End Times. Such chains will prevent criminals from escaping and harming themselves and others.

He [Solomon] inspected the birds and said: "How is it that I do not see the hoopoe? or is it absent without leave? I will certainly punish it most severely or slaughter it if it does not bring me clear authority." (Qur'an, 27:20-21)

These verses show that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) inspected his army regularly so that he could notice and correct any problem immediately in order to preserve discipline. as the verse suggests, being absent without permission or notice was a very serious breach of discipline.

[Solomon said to the messengers of the Queen of Saba:] "Return to them. We will come to them with troops they cannot face, and we will expel them from it abased and humiliated." (Qur'an, 27:37)

This is how Prophet Solomon (pbuh) addressed the messengers who brought him gifts from the Queen of Saba. He stated that he would not accept her gifts under any circumstances, thereby manifesting his determination that she should submit to him.

In addition, we can understand that no other army could defeat his army. as we will see later on, when the rulers of Saba heard of this, they realized that submission was their only option.

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Superior Moral Character

Having talked about Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) God-given knowledge, glorious kingdom and mighty army, we will now discuss one of his most important characteristics: his superior morality. Throughout his life, he invited people to live a moral life that would please God and served as a role model of deep faith and high moral character.

He Always Turned toward God

What an excellent servant! He truly turned to his Lord. (Qur’an, 38:30)

The Qur'an reveals that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) constantly turned toward God, prayed to Him, and revealed all of his desires to Him.

Although he lived at a time when idolatry was widespread, he never put anything on the same level with God. Rather, he only desired to please God and make His religion supreme. Therefore, he sought the approval of no other person or creature. for example, he invited the sun worshippers of Saba to abandon their ancestral belief system and submit to God.

We tested Solomon and placed a lifeless body on his throne. Then he returned. He said: "My Lord, forgive me and give me a kingdom the like of which will never be granted to anyone after me. Truly, You are the Ever-Giving." (Qur'an, 38:34-35)

Whenever Prophet Solomon (pbuh) encountered any difficulty, anxiety, or blessing, he immediately turned toward God. He remembered God in every conversation and made every decision with His name in mind. God tested Prophet Solomon (pbuh) in various ways, but his response was always morally good. for example, as the above verse shows, during one test the first thing that came to his mind was to pray to God and take refuge in His generous mercy.

[Solomon] said: "This is part of my Lord's favor, to test me to see if I will give thanks or show ingratitude. Whoever gives thanks only does so to his own gain. Whoever is ungrateful, my Lord is Rich Beyond Need, Generous." (Qur'an, 27:40)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) displayed this moral character in times of distress as well as in times of success and victory, for he was a humble servant who knew his own helplessness before God. He realized that every success, like every difficulty, was a test from God.

He Always Gave Thanks to God … "Work, O family of David, in thankfulness!" but very few of My servants are thankful. (Qur'an, 34:13)

As He did with Prophet David (pbuh), God bestowed upon Prophet Solomon (pbuh) blessings that no one had ever received. God willed him to use the mercy, which He bestowed upon him, as a means of thanking and remembering Him. In return, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was always thankful, humble, and sincere, and directed all of his deeds toward God because he knew that he would have to answer for his responses to those blessings on the Day of Judgment.

"My Lord, keep me thankful for the blessing You have bestowed on me and on my parents; keep me acting rightly, pleasing You; and admit me, by Your mercy, among Your servants who are righteous." (Qur'an, 27:19)

The Qur'an relates that after Prophet Solomon (pbuh) heard the ants' conversation, he immediately turned toward God in prayer. Knowing that God was the real possessor of the blessings he had received, he showed that the sole purpose of his every word and deed was to gain His good approval.

God gave him the best reward for his sincere and faithful morality and announced these good tidings in Qur'an 38:40: "He will have nearness to Us and a good Homecoming." in another verse, He stated: "We gave knowledge to David and Solomon who said: 'Praise be to God, Who has favored us over many of His servants who are believers'" (Qur'an, 27:15).

Moreover, when Prophet Solomon (pbuh) saw this female ant's compassion for her community, he immediately thought of his mother and father. This reaction shows that people should thank God for the blessings that came to them through their parents (e.g., nurture from infancy, upbringing, shelter, and education), because these blessings actually come from God.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) Loved Animals

When, toward the close of day, nobly-bred, swift-footed steeds were brought before him, he [Solomon] said: "Truly do I love the love of good because of the remembrance of my Lord." — [repeating these words as the steeds raced away, ] until they were hidden by the veil [of dust]. (Qur'an, 38:31-32)

Obviously, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) devoted a certain amount of time to these horses, which gladdened the hearts of those who enjoyed watching their skillful and elegant gaits and postures. as he observed them, he praised God. All believers should strive for this exemplary behavior, for they should remember God when meeting with any form of beauty because of the profound effect that any form of beauty will form in their spirits. This effect comes from the believers' deep love of God.

Most of those who are far removed from the beautiful things that religious morality brings are reserved and become careless and insensitive. However, as we clearly see in Prophet Solomon’s (pbuh) behavior, Muslims think deeply, are extremely sensitive toward the beautiful things around them, and take pleasure in art and beautiful things. They are aware of God's blessings, know how to enjoy them, and thank Him for them. In any case, as God says: "Say: 'Who has forbidden the fine clothing God has produced for His servants and the good kinds of provision?' Say: 'They are [lawful] in the life of this world unto all who have believed—to be theirs alone on the Day of Rising'" (Qur'an, 7:32), the beautiful things in the world are created for Muslims.

[Solomon said:] "Return them to me!" and he set about stroking their shanks and necks. (Qur'an, 38:33)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) expressed his love in both word and deed. Here, we see most clearly his power to express his love. Generally, people do not always express their love and affection properly. In fact, they usually shrink away from expressing these feelings. A person's ability to show sincere affection toward someone else is a gift from God. In the Qur'an, God says that he gave this ability to Prophet John (pbuh), one of His faithful servants:

[We said to him:] "John, take hold of the Book with vigor." We gave him judgment while still a child. and tenderness and purity from Us—he guarded against evil. (Qur'an, 19:12-13)

The Qur'an gives examples of Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) love for other animals, such as the ant mentioned above. A female ant, seeing Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and his army coming, told her fellow ants to return to the nest so that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and his army would not injure them unwittingly. The word unwittingly indicates that while Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was waging war, he was so compassionate that he would not even harm an ant.

This incident shows the importance of loving animals, because believers can understand better the beauties of creation and the deep wisdom with which God created living things. as one verse relates: "… there is beauty in them [animals] for you…" (Qur'an, 16:6). So, his love for animals is an expression of the wonder felt for God's perfect creation.

The Qur'an reveals that one of the benefits animals can give to human beings is security. for example, dogs can ensure their masters' safety. Qur'an 18:18 mentions the dog that belonged to the Companions of the Cave. Many other verses encourage people to love animals and examine the proofs of creation that they reflect.

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Attitude toward Possessions

"Truly do I love the love of good because of the remembrance of my Lord." (Qur'an, 38:32)

As this verse says, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) praised God for the splendor of his wealth and stated that he loved his possessions because they made him remember God. We must consider his words carefully, for other verses assert that the love of possessions may lead people astray. for example: "Truly, man is ungrateful to his Lord and indeed he bears witness to that. Truly, he is fierce in his love of wealth" (Qur'an, 100:6-8).

Wealth and love of possessions harden the hearts of most people and alienate them from religion, because they think that they have earned their possessions through their own efforts. for this reason, they become arrogant and feel self-sufficient. Forgetting that they need God, they become wrapped up in their ambition to amass more wealth. Instead of living to serve God, they live to accumulate wealth. Muslims must avoid this trap by abandoning their greed and recognizing Him as the true source of their wealth and possessions.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) showed us how Muslims should look at wealth and possessions: Aware of their true owner, Muslims must consider their wealth and possessions as no more than a means to remember God. Muslims who realize this great truth do not grow arrogant or haughty when wealth and possessions are given to them, or worry about losing them. Rather, they thank God for what He has given and use it in accordance with God's will and to win His good pleasure. They regard God's bestowal of great wealth, power, and magnificence upon them as a blessing and a means for proving their sincere belief in Him. as a result, their love, fear, and respect for God will grow even greater.

Given these facts, faithful and devout Muslims are the best guardians of wealth, possessions, and power. One such person was Prophet Solomon (pbuh) who, despite the fact that no one had as much power as he did, was always sincere, approached God with deep reverence, and served His religion.

From this verse, we learn that people can love their possessions, provided that they are used in the hope of gaining His good pleasure and proclaim His eternal power.

He [Solomon] said: "My Lord, forgive me and give me a kingdom the like of which will never be granted to anyone after me. Truly, You are the Ever-Giving." (Qur'an, 38:35)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) loved wealth, which he used to seek God's good pleasure, and wanted even more so that he could offer even more service to God. Muslims should follow this example if they find themselves in a similar situation.

Muslims can have great wealth, magnificent possessions, and wonderful works of art. Indeed, throughout history Muslim empires were characterized by such traits. The most obvious example is the Ottoman Empire, which was Islam's standard bearer for several centuries and left its architectural and other artistic works throughout its vast realm.

One reason for the believers' wealth is that wealth plays a major role in turning people's hearts to Islam. The believers' splendid possessions attract those who are far removed from religious morality and give too much value to material things. After meeting individual believers, their interest in religion is awakened. as we shall see in this book, this was one of the methods used by Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to get the Queen of Saba to accept Islam.

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Special Knowledge

We gave knowledge to David and Solomon, [both of whom] said: "Praise be to God, Who has favored us over many of His servants who are believers." This is indeed a clear favor. (Qur'an, 27:15)

This test may be a miracle connected to Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) special knowledge. In a metaphysical way, God may have taken him from the material world to the spiritual world. Perhaps there is no matter in the spiritual world, which could have led Prophet Solomon (pbuh) to understand that his throne and the corpse were not material things, but rather objects of the imagination. After returning to the material realm, he may have reclaimed his body and returned to his former state.

We tested Sulayman and placed a lifeless body on his throne. Then he made repent. (Qur'an, 38:34)

During this journey, he may have left his body and seen it as a corpse. as a result, he may have become aware of the true value of life in this world and of how helpless human beings are. He may have understood that the world would end one day and that all of the things that people value (e.g., money, wealth, property, possessions, and beautiful things) are only illusions.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) understood that this life had no value and that he was to use possessions in God's service. Immediately after this event, he prayed for great wealth.

Harut and Marut

They follow what the demons recited during Solomon's reign. Solomon believed, but the demons did not, teaching people sorcery and what had been sent down to Harut and Marut, the two angels in Babylon…(Qur'an, 2:102)

During the time of Prophet Solomon (pbuh), some people admired magical practices that God had forbidden. They learned such magic from demons and what was taught to two angels (Harut and Marut) in Babylon, again from demons, and used them for evil purposes.

Satan, who opposed Prophet Solomon (pbuh), placed certain individuals under his spell and may have used Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) great wealth to incite the people against him. They might have rebelled by establishing secret societies to undermine his kingdom. (God knows the truth.) as a matter of fact, historical sources say that Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) Muslim Israelite Kingdom was split in two after his death because of internal conflicts.

Harut and Marut, the two angels in Babylon, who taught no one without first saying to him: "We are merely a trial and temptation, so do not abandon belief." People learned from them how to separate a man and his wife. but they cannot harm anyone by it, except with God's permission. They have learned what will harm them and will not benefit them. They know that any who deal in it will have no share in the Hereafter. What an evil thing they have sold themselves for. if they only knew! (Qur'an, 2:102)

In order to deceive human beings, demons taught them the magic that they learned from Harut and Marut. However, Harut and Marut told their potential students that they were a test from God and warned them against abandoning belief. Only after this warning did they teach the people. for this reason, people must realize that magic is better off avoided.

Everyone who resorts to magic must understand that only God can make it effective, for He created that particular spell for a purpose. No one can obtain anything without His knowledge and permission.

People who believe in magic may suffer because of it, for God rewards their deviation with misery.

Believers have no interest in magic or in what demons say. Using magic to destroy human relationships, as well as deviating from the right way by delving into such superstitious beliefs, are evil games designed by Satan to prevent people from following the right path. Those who practice magic and the like have been beguiled by Satan.

There is no room in the Qur'an for such superstitious beliefs, for:

Say: "I seek refuge with the Lord of Daybreak, from the evil of what He has created, from the evil of the darkness when it gathers, and from the evil of women who blow on knots…" (Qur'an, 113:1-4)

The same matter is spoken of in the verses mentioning Harut and Marut. Neither magic nor women who blow on knots have any power or efficacy, for only God, Lord of the Worlds, has true power. All believers rely on God and trust only in Him, hope for assistance from Him, tell Him all of their needs and anxieties, and take Him as their friend and guardian.

These verses may contain some reference to the End Times. In speaking of magic, God may be indicating that this sinful and useless practice might increase in the End Times. In fact, people might use them to earn a living and fortune-tellers might exploit people. One hadith mentions this situation:

The Hour will come when people will believe in the stars and reject Qadar [the Divine Decree of destiny]. (Ahmad Diya' ad-Din al-Kamushkhanawi an-Naqshbandi, Ramuz al-Ahadith, vol. 1, p. 1540.)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and the Queen of Saba

Most of the verses about Prophet Solomon (pbuh) discuss his relations with the Queen of Saba. In addition to providing important details about the two kingdoms' political and economic relations, they give many examples of Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) international relations, administrative skills, and presentations of God's religion to others.

However, it was not long delayed, and then it [the hoopoe] said [to Solomon]: “I have comprehended something that you have not, and bring you accurate intelligence from Saba.” (Qur’an, 27:22)

The relations between the two kingdoms began when the hoopoe, a member of Prophet Solomon’s (pbuh) army, brought information about Saba and its queen. Upon its return, the hoopoe told Prophet Solomon (pbuh) the following:

"I found a woman ruling over them who has been given everything. She possesses a mighty throne." (Qur'an, 27:23)

The purpose of this verse may be to show that a woman ruler was unusual in those days. The hoopoe said that the Queen of Saba was endowed with wealth and every kind of blessing and emphasized the size of her throne. This may symbolize the extent of her power and authority. (God knows the truth.)

"I found both her and her people prostrating to the sun instead of God. Satan has made their actions seem good to them and debarred them from the Way, so they are not guided." (Qur'an, 27:24)

In other words, Satan had convinced these people that worshipping the Sun, instead of God, was the true path. This means that they were following the faith of their ancestors, an excuse often given by pagans for rejecting the true religion. This is just one more example of Satan's most important goal: diverting people from the true path and preventing them from submitting to God. This verse may also indicate that unbelievers are far from God's religion because they are deceived by superstitious beliefs, philosophies, and ideas.

But as the verse below says, Satan has no effect on those servants who believe with a pure and sincere heart:

He [Satan] said: "My Lord, because You misled me, I will make things on Earth seem good to them. I will mislead them all, every one of them, except Your servants among them who are sincere." (Qur'an, 15:39-40)

"And [they] do not prostrate to God, Who brings out what is hidden in the heavens and Earth, and knows what you conceal and what you divulge. God—there is no god but Him—the Lord of the Mighty Throne. (Qur'an, 27:25-26)

These verses reveal some of the hoopoe's characteristics:

He might have been a believing jinn, for he often proclaimed his belief.

He was obedient, because he knew that he first had to inform Prophet Solomon (pbuh), who had true wisdom and power, before telling anyone else.

He understood the things he saw and related the information in a way that held his hearer's attention. He concentrated on the important matters and passed lightly over insignificant details, for his concise manner of speaking went to the essence of the matter.

Even though the hoopoe was a bird, he could speak and relay information. as stated above, the female ant that saw Prophet Solomon (pbuh)'s army could also speak. Today, because of advanced computer technology, films often feature talking birds, ants, and other creatures. This may be one of the things alluded to in this account.

He [Solomon] said: "We will soon see if you have told the truth or are a liar." (Qur'an, 27:27)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had noticed the hoopoe's absence. He did not make an immediate decision but waited for his explanation. This shows that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was an intelligent, mature, fair, and just ruler.

After hearing the hoopoe's information, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) ordered an investigation to ascertain its truth. This is a proof that he was a provident and just ruler.

"Take this letter of mine and deliver it to them. Then withdraw from them a little and see how they respond." (Qur'an, 27:28)

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) habit of making a decision after observing a person's reaction is a very intelligent practice. for instance, it prevents possible errors arising from the envoy's personal interpretation.

In addition, the Queen of Saba was not aware that she was being observed. So, she behaved naturally and sincerely when consulting her advisors and expressed her true thoughts. Thus, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) could learn what she really thought about him.

She said: "O Council! an important letter has been delivered to me." (Qur'an, 27:29)

The Queen of Saba understood immediately that this letter was very important. This could have been for various reasons, such as the following:

First, both the fact that the hoopoe delivered the letter and the hoopoe's characteristics could have revealed the situation's extraordinary nature.

The quality of the paper, the seal, or the style of writing could have revealed Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) wealth, high artistic appreciation, and power. Such things might have affected her.

She may have read the letter herself and only then have called in her advisors. Knowing its contents, she may have regarded it as important. (God knows the truth.)

The verse uses the Arabic words kitabun kareemun for an important letter. The word kitabun can mean either a writing or a book. and kareemun can mean basic, chosen, honorable, respected, valuable. So, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) may not have sent just a letter, but maybe an accompanying book or document explaining the true religion. Its introduction may have begun with the words: In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.

"It is from Solomon and says: 'In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.'" (Qur'an, 27:30)

The fact that the queen only announced that a letter (or book) had arrived from Prophet Solomon (pbuh) shows that he was known in Saba. We can understand from this that Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) kingdom was widely renowned for its wealth and power.

"Do not rise up against me, but come to me in submission." (Qur'an, 27:31)

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) style was open and very effective. The letter's incisive, decisive, and clear style showed that it was from a powerful ruler and might have affected the queen and her council.

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) used his letter to explain His religion and then invite the people of Saba to belief in God. He did not want to subjugate them to himself; rather, he wanted to lead them toward God so that they might become Muslims. This shows that he was more interested in their belief system than in conquering Saba, because he was sent to invite people to the true path and warn them.

These verses inform us of the relations between Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Saba, and that achieved his goals through diplomacy instead of war. Using letters and envoys, he sought to open relations and encourage mutual understanding and peace.

This method of communication also reveals an important fact: Oral communication may be forgotten and be ineffective due to many distractions in the local environment. Also, people may not be able to express themselves clearly while talking, or those listening to them may become distracted. However, a written document helps both the writer and the reader to focus their attention on what is being said. Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) method of communication shows that he understood this. It must be remembered that the written word is an important way of relaying the reality of belief and the truth of God's religion.

She said: "O Council! Give me your opinion about this matter. It is not my habit to make a final decision until I have heard what you have to say." (Qur'an, 27:32)

The fact that she immediately sought her advisors' advice shows that she was not an absolute monarch, but rather followed a democratic system. by asking for their opinions, she sought to profit from their experience.

They said: "We possess strength and great military force. but the matter is in your hands, so consider what you command." (Qur'an, 27:33)

This verse shows that she consulted her military officials about which course she should follow. From their answer, we can see that this council acted with the authority and by the command of the Queen.

She said: "When kings enter a city, they lay waste to it and make its mightiest inhabitants the most abased. That is what they too will do." (Qur'an, 27:34)

Realizing that she could not defeat Prophet Solomon (pbuh) militarily, she decided to submit to his call. Yet, in order to gain time to find a way out of this situation, she sent Prophet Solomon (pbuh) a gift:

[The Queen of Saba said:] "I will send them a gift, and then wait and see what the envoys bring back." (Qur'an, 27:35)

The purpose behind sending this gift was to learn his true intention and to gauge his reaction. Thus, she employed the same method as Prophet Solomon (pbuh) had.

In this verse, we notice that a gift is important to judge a people's reactions and to analyze their spiritual state. When a person does not accept a valuable gift sent to influence his or her opinion, the subsequent refusal may be seen as a sign of sincerity and decisiveness.

When it reached Solomon, he said: "Would you give me wealth when what God has given me is better than what He has given you? No, rather it is you who delight in your gift." (Qur'an, 27:36)

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) response showed that he could not be influenced and that God's gifts to him were much better than what she had sent. This shows that he only sought God's good pleasure.

He sent back the queen's envoys, thereby clearly showing that he knew her intention and would not accept her gift. In this way, he prevented her from being pleased with herself and being arrogant in her wealth. This was a great psychological blow for the people of Saba, who then realized that their queen's wealth could not help them.

[Solomon said:] "Return to them. We will come to them with troops they cannot face, and we will expel them from it abased and humiliated." (Qur'an, 27:37)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh)'s army had extraordinary strength. Even the most powerful army may be opposed and withstood. However, this verse reveals that his army was well-known because of its supernatural power, which prevented it from being defeated.

Here Prophet Solomon (pbuh) destroyed the queen's envoys' self-confidence and arrogance. In his second message, he reminded the queen and Saba's prominent citizens how weak they were compared to him and his army. Perhaps he did this so that he could achieve his aim without going to war.

He said: "O Council! Who among you will bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?" (Qur'an, 27:38)

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) spoke with certainty about Saba's imminent submission. This may be a sign that God had informed him of this event.

Each country values its flags and standards, because they symbolize the country's independence. as the hoopoe said, Saba's pride was its queen's great throne. by asking prominent members of his retinue to bring him that throne before the queen and her court arrived, Prophet Solomon (pbuh) sought to destroy her people's morale and make them submit more quickly.

From this verse, we learn that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) could maneuver, make quick decisions, and carry them out without delay. This is a great advantage when it comes to gaining the upper hand against opposing forces, especially in a time of war.

A demon of the jinns said: "I will bring it to you before you get up from your seat. I am strong and trustworthy enough to do it." (Qur'an, 27:39)

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