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The Miracle of Electricity in the Body

Adnan Oktar (Harun Yahya)

About the Author

Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, Adnan Oktar was born in Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary education in Ankara, he studied fine arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.

Harun Yahya's works, translated into 73 different languages, constitute a collection for a total of more than 65,000 pages with 44,000 illustrations.

His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya (John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought against their peoples' lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his books' covers is symbolic and is linked to their contents. It represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), last of the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental tenet of irreligious ideologies and to have the "last word," so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prophet (pbuh), who attained ultimate wisdom and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.

All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues such as God's existence and unity and the hereafter; and to expose irreligious systems' feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.

Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia. Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spoken in Maldives), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.

Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been instrumental in many people recovering faith in God and gaining deeper insights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a distinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.

This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for God's right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.

Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God, render an invaluable service.

Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideological confusion, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yahya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral values. The success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers' conviction.

One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively, or it may be too late.

In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. by the will of God, these books will be a means through which people in the twenty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the Qur'an.





All translations from the Qur'an are from
The Noble Qur'an: A New Rendering of its Meaning in English
by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published
by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.

Published by:

Global Publishing

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Www.Harunyahya.Com

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To the Reader

• A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution because this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since Darwinism rejects the fact of creation—and therefore, God's existence—over the last 150 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show everyone that this theory is a deception. Since some readers may find the opportunity to read only one of our books, we think it appropriate to devote a chapter to summarize this subject.

• All the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'anic verses, and invite readers to learn God's words and to live by them. All the subjects concerning God's verses are explained so as to leave no doubt or room for questions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensures that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are influenced by the facts these books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.

• This and all the other books by the author can be read individually, or discussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books will find discussion very useful, letting them relate their reflections and experiences to one another.

• In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publication and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of God. The author's books are all extremely convincing. for this reason, to communicate true religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to read these books.

• We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his other books at the back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful, and a pleasure to read.

• In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's personal views, explanations based on dubious sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pessimistic arguments that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart

Contents

Introduction: Our Lives Depend on Electricity

Electricity: The Body’s Essential Energy

The Nervous System: Electricity’s Journey through Our Bodies

Neurons: Cells That Produce Electrical Current

Chemical Messengers: Neurotransmitters

The Heart: Our Bodies’ Electronic Clock

The Muscular System That Operates on Electrical Energy

The Brain: Our Matchless Computer that Interprets Electrical Signals

Vital Information Carried with Electrical Current

The Electrical System of the Body and the Associated Diseases

The Flawless Construction That Begins with the Embryo

Our Bodies’ Electrical System Refutes the Claims of Evolution

Conclusion: God Pervades All Places

Appendix: The Deception of Evolution

Introduction: Our Lives Depend on Electricity

Without electricity, what would your life be like? You would have to find a way of ascending 15 floors with no elevator and preventing food in your refrigerator from spoiling. You could not watch television, warm your dinner up in the microwave, listen to your favorite music on the stereo, quickly dry your hair, cool down your bedroom by means of air conditioning, brighten that room with the touch of a switch or to operate essential machines like your dishwasher, washing machine and clothes drier. at night, your home would be dark and unsafe, and you would live deprived of the many time-saving technologies such as electric heaters, kettles, table lamps, videos and computers—which all make our life so much easier. On a larger scale, traffic, communications, transport, security systems, workplaces, water distribution, energy production, publishing and the press, all depend on electricity as well.

During the summer of 2003, a power blackout in the USA, which affected an area extending from Detroit to Chicago, was a striking example of electricity’s vital importance. Although short-lived, it was reported as a catastrophe. Newspapers ran headlines like “LIFE COMES to a STANDSTILL.” in the absence of electricity, traffic lights, elevators, public transport, and computers all became inoperative. People were unable to go to work, go shopping, or even communicate with one another.

The importance of electricity, whose interruption can bring life to a complete standstill, goes far beyond this. Just as a city’s functioning depends on the continuation of the established order, so there is a need for electricity in the human body, in processes analogous to energy production, communications, security, maintenance, and repair. In short, life would be impossible in the absence of our bodies’ electrical system, which is even more essential than the power grid in cities.

Few who make use of electricity reflect on the fact that, just like the appliances they depend on, their bodies could not function without electricity. The fact is, however, that the human body has been equipped with a flawless electricity network, along with the presence of intelligent systems that contain the most complex information and know-how to benefit from electrical energy.

Indeed, scientists employ terms commonly used in electronics to describe the body’s nervous system: “generate,” “circuit,” “current,” “resistance,” “voltage,” “insulation,” “charge,” and so forth. It is next to impossible to describe the system without using these terms. The fact that principles necessary for the functioning of technology, discovered in only the last two centuries, have existed in the human body ever since it was first created, is a clear indication of the superior knowledge of God. The details set out in this book constitute just a few examples of His infinite knowledge that we have grown able to comprehend.

Electricity: The Body’s Essential Energy

Electricity is everywhere. The nucleus of every atom—the basis of everything you can see and touch—consists of particles known as protons and neutrons. Around that nucleus there are electrons that revolve around it constantly at very high speeds.

Protons possess a positive electrical charge; electrons a negative one. Under normal conditions, an atom has an equal number of electrons and protons; and since the positive and negative electrical charges balance each other, the atom is said to be neutrally charged. When that balance is upset—for example, when an atom acquires a surplus electron—it becomes negatively charged; and on the other hand, should the atom lose an electron, it will become positively charged. Under appropriate conditions, such imbalances of electrical charge initiate a flow of electrons, which is referred to as electricity. In short, electricity is a form of energy created by the movement of electrons.

Without this electrical energy, our bodies would be unable to function. Electricity is of vital importance to the survival of every one of us, as well as for our ability to speak, move our muscles, and sense the world around us. In the absence of electrical flow, vital functions come to a halt, and the individual will be crippled or die. We communicate, move about, and employ our five senses by means of the electricity generated within our bodies. Even if you have been unaware of it before now, even before you were born into the world, your life depended on mechanisms that in turn, depend on electricity, and you became acquainted with your surroundings and grew and developed by means of these mechanisms.

That is the reason why electric shocks are administered to cardiac patients whose hearts have stopped beating. In such an extreme situation, no drugs or vitamins can be administered to cure the patient. Although there are a great many substances that are beneficial to the body, the heart first of all requires electricity in order to function.

Once science realized the importance of electricity in living bodies, universities established special departments solely for the purpose of researching this subject, and scientists wrote a great many research articles and books about it. Today, intense research is still being carried out into the bioelectric systems of living things. Rodolfo Llinas, Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the New York University Medical Center, has stated that there is electricity in all living things that move, and continued:

Our thoughts, our ability to move, see, dream, all of that is fundamentally driven and organized by electrical pulses. It’s almost like what happens in a computer, but far more beautiful and complicated. 1

The Electrical Order in Our Bodies

Human body is like a machine that requires regular maintenance every day and works through electricity. When you move a muscle, electrical discharges take place. The signals that carry commands from the brain through nerves are electrical, as are all the sensory signals that move from the body towards the brain. Cell division and heartbeat are electrical in nature. In fact, all chemical changes are based on electricity, through electrons being transferred, shared or altered at the molecular level. There are practically no non-electrical systems in the human body. Even when you lie down to rest, complex duties beyond your control continue to be performed regarding energy production: your heartbeat, the oxygen reaching your lungs, and more cellular activities than can ever be numbered.

In order to survive, in short, the human body employs electrochemical systems. That part of the body that depends on electricity the most is the nervous system. The body keeps producing electricity as long as it suffers no accident or physical disability, and by the electrical energy it produces, performs its activities day and night. The electrical systems in living things possess many more advantages than the electrical systems in mechanical devices. The most important of these advantages is biological systems’ ability to repair themselves. Should you cut your finger, for instance, the wound will heal itself within a short time. Again there is an electrical sequence behind the systems that permit this to happen. This feature does not exist in—nor can it be replicated by—any artificial machine.

Another advantage of the electrical system within your body is its multi-faceted activity. Circulation, the immune system, motion, communication, digestion, excretion—all these functions take place thanks to the nervous system. Man-made electrical devices, on the other hand, are generally restricted to one or at most, several similar functions: such as air-conditioning, heating, mixing, or sweeping—but despite this, they consume high levels of energy. The electrical energy used by the body—despite its being used to operate so many different systems—is at exceedingly low levels.

In the electrical equipment we use in everyday life, the strength of the electricity used—that is, the voltage level—needs to be kept at a specific level. However, these levels are regulated not by the machine itself, but once again, adjusted by special, man-made devices. Adaptors and voltage regulators are used to ensure a balanced flow. Otherwise, the machine’s entire operations will be impaired.

In the human body, however, all these adjustments are carried out without your even being aware of them.

In addition, the production and use of electricity in our bodies goes on non-stop. Even when the body is resting, the flow of minute electrical signals continues constantly, in intervals as short as 1/1000 of a second. Electrical devices generally have a life span of 10 to 20 years, and usually need to be repaired and have new parts installed long before that. Yet apart from under very exceptional circumstances, the human body’s electrical system functions for an entire lifetime, never resting and never giving out.

The body’s various systems, and even single nerve cells—none of which can be replicated using human intellect and accumulated knowledge—are of such complexity as to prove that their existence cannot be the work of chance. In the absence of this electrical system, whose details we shall be examining throughout this book, the other systems in the body and its organs could not function so flawlessly. Therefore, there can be no question of “stage by stage” development, one of the main claims of the theory of evolution, which maintains that living things came into being through the mechanism of chance.

Despite being an evolutionist, the biologist Hoimar von Ditfurth describes the impossibility of claims of chance in his book the Secret Night of the Dinosaurs:

The statistical impossibility of the living structures in question forming by chance is a popular and highly contemporary example of the current point of scientific development. Indeed, looking at the extraordinary properties of the formation of a single protein molecule that undertakes biological functions, it does appear impossible to explain the combining of many atoms, all in the right location and the right order and with all the correct electrical and mechanical features, as the result of chance. 2

The human body produces its own electricity. In order for any function to take place in the body, a signal must be sent to the relevant organ or tissue. if we are to survive, therefore, there can be no question of chance occurrences anywhere in our bodies. That is because it is impossible to account in terms of chance for the way that millions of separate factors work together at exactly the right way, levels, with perfect timing, flawlessly and thoroughly, constantly without tiring and with superb coordination over 80 to 90 years. Were each organ to act independently—were it to delay the commands reaching it or to give haphazard responses to them; were it to grow and function only when it chose to—then we would be unable to survive even for a moment in the chaotic environment that would result. Moreover, just a brief delay or for just a few cells to create confusion would be enough to let such a chaotic environment arise. Indeed, evolutionists, with their claims regarding chance, are unable to conceal their amazement in the face of the immaculate order they encounter. They have no reply to give when asked how these organs and systems emerged and appeared within the body, in just the right locations and just the right form and functions. Yet the answer is manifest: it is God, the Creator of all the worlds, Who has flawlessly brought them into being:

He Who has created all things in the best possible way. He commenced the creation of man from clay; then produced his seed from an extract of base fluid! Then (He) formed him and breathed His Spirit into him and gave you hearing, sight and hearts. What little thanks you show? (Surat as-Sajda, 7-9)

The Nervous System: Electricity’s Journey Through Our Bodies

Human beings have a central nervous system, the most complex biological system known. Billions of nerve cells, or neurons, and the trillions of connections among them constitute the nervous system’s main structure. The central nervous system consists of more than 100 billion neurons. In addition, there are up to ten times as many helper cells, known as neuroglia.

Our bodies are equipped with bio-electrical cables, known as nerves, millions of meters in length. Information is transported along these cables at a speed approaching that of light. The way nerves extend to every point in our bodies, possessing an astonishing order, and the way commands and information are carried by means of these cables, are miraculous. Despite the intensity of the data flow involved, no confusion ever occurs, and every message is transmitted scrupulously to its destination.

Also surprising is that no matter how different the sensory information, being forwarded—concerning the keyboard you touch, the taste of the sweets you eat, the smell of newly baked bread, the sound of the telephone or the sight of daylight entering your eyes—the same communications system is employed. All information regarding our senses or thoughts travels inside nerve extensions, encoded in the form of electrical stimuli, in a wave state. Although these many electrical signals constantly coming and going throughout the body are all identical, they reveal to us a world full of myriad colors and rich details. 3

Our nerves also permit us to obtain information about the world around us, to react quickly to changes, and also let various regions of the body function as a single entity. They also transmit orders from the brain, the body’s command center—so that essentially, nerves are highways that transmit the data that keeps our bodies alive and healthy. Departing from the brain and spinal column, they extend to all parts of the body including the skin, muscles, sensory organs, even the teeth and the interior of the bones.

If the nerves extended to everywhere in your body apart from your right hand, what would happen? First off, your hand would have no sensations. You would not feel a knife that cut your finger, and would be unable to perform any tasks for which you normally use that hand. You could not have your fingers grip a cup, hold a pencil, open a door, or comb your hair. In short, your hand would be just a quantity of living flesh and bone.

But the existence of nerves alone is not sufficient for a healthy life. They must also have to reach all parts of the body and be able to communicate with one another. It is impossible for how the nerves interpenetrate the entire body and control all its flawless systems to have come about simply by chance.

Despite the many opportunities provided by present-day technologies, scientists have been unable to produce anything resembling the cell. Evolutionists maintain that a cell, of its own accord, flawlessly fulfills responsibilities that human beings are unable to replicate. but that claim is incompatible with logic and reason. Clearly, the nervous system enfolds and manages our entire bodies and even engages in conscious activities. However, this superior consciousness that astonishes scientists cannot belong to cells—mere collections of organelles and their unconscious atoms. This consciousness belongs to God, the Maker of all. (Surat al-Baqara, 54)

Nerves: Our Bodies’ Electrical Cables

Electricity cables consist of two main components: Inside, there’s generally a copper wire through which the electric current passes; and outside and surrounding it, there is some kind of insulating material that prevents electrons escaping their intended path, in the process called short circuiting.

Nerve cells possess exactly the same design as an electrical cable: Inside are very fine fibers, through which the body’s electrical current passes. Surrounding them is an insulating tissue known as the Schwann sheath, which prevents neurological short circuiting. When the sheath is damaged for any reason—by a virus for example—then the nerve’s current is dispersed throughout the tissues, resulting in partial or total paralysis, in much the same way that an electrical cable loses its function when its rubber casing splits or burns.

All nerve fibers have electrical charges. The electricity outside the fiber is positively charged and the inside is negatively charged. The moment a nerve is touched an electrical impulse is given off. Positively charged ions enter the nerve sheath while negative ions move to the exterior of the nerve fiber, thus setting up an electrical current. as a result, the relevant muscle or organ functions. Once the electrical current has been transmitted, everything returns to its normal state. Positively charged ions again flow to the outside of the nerve fiber, and negatively charged ions return inside. In this way, the nerve fiber is readied for another stimulus or impulse.

Thanks to this constantly repeated process, the activities continue that keep us alive. However, this procedure is a great deal more detailed and possesses a far more complex design than is summarized here. The more the imaging power of our electron microscopes increases, the more complexity emerges to amaze scientists. The design of the cells that constitute the nerves is full of astonishing details that display the infinite might of our Lord:

The kingdom of the heavens and the Earth and everything in them belongs to God. He has power over all things. (Surat al-Ma’ida, 120)

Neurons: Cells That Produce Electrical Current

Nerves interpenetrating our bodies consist of hundreds, and sometimes, thousands of nerve cells called “neurons.” an average neuron is 10 microns wide. (One micron is equal to 1/1000 millimeter, which equals to 0.000039 of an inch.) Were we able to line up the 100 billion neurons in a human brain, their line would extend for a full 1000 kilometers (620 miles). but this line would be only 10 microns wide, invisible to the naked eye. You can envisage the minute size of neurons with the following comparison: 50 neurons would fit into a period at the end of this sentence5 and 30,000 on the head of a pin. 6

Neurons have been created to carry the electrical impulses throughout the body. The task of most neurons is to receive signals from neighboring neurons and then to transmit these on to another adjacent neuron or to the ultimate target cell. Neurons communicate with one another, carrying out thousands of these processes every second.

We can compare a neuron to an electrical switch that goes on or off, depending on circumstances. On its own, a neuron constitutes only a very small part of the interconnected circuits of the nervous system. but in the absence of these tiny electrical circuits, life is impossible. Professor Werner Gitt of the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology describes this giant complex squeezed into this small area:

If it were possible to describe [the nervous system] as a circuit diagram, [with each neuron] represented by a single pinhead, such a circuit diagram would require an area of several kilometers. . . . [It would be] several hundred times more complex than the entire global telephone network. 7

As he emphasizes, the nervous system in our bodies functions like a very complex data network, which depends on all the neurons performing their duties to perfection. with the rhythmic, coordinated motion of the impulses from one neuron to the next, each organ, muscle, joint, system and cell performs its functions without any conscious command or supervision from you. Moreover, although millions of cells die in your body every day, these are expelled from your body in a way that causes no disruption to its balances and functions. Again by means of an impeccable system, new cells replace the ones that have died. In this, there is not the slightest error in terms of timing or measurement. We have no control over these activities, and continue to enjoy healthy lives so long as none of them suffer any disruption.

If you tread on a piece of broken glass while walking barefoot, only a few thousandths of a second elapse between the glass entering your foot and your brain perceiving the pain. During that interval—so brief that it is impossible for you to be aware of it—a message is sent from your foot to your brain, a rapid and flawless communication carried out by neurons. In this way, you lift your foot off the ground before it can be injured any further.

It is completely beyond the bounds of possibility for such a system to have developed spontaneously. However, certain circles who blindly support the theory of evolution seek to account for this perfect order in the human body in terms of random coincidences. We can show just how meaningless these claims are with the following example:

Look at the electrical devices around you, each of which has been specially designed with plastic and electronic equipment, buttons, cables and other components for a specific objective that will make your life easier. Dozens of engineers have worked behind the scenes for a single hairdryer, along with the use of various plants, several branches of science and the designs of experts in the field. The result was a device that’s functional and easy to use. No rational person could logically suggest that such a device came into being as the result of chance.

Your body, however, possesses an electrical system far more complex than that in any electrical device. to claim that such a system came into being by chance is therefore still more infinitesimally remote.

Neurons Specially Created to Carry Signals

All neurons contain a nucleus, short fibers known as dendrites that carry electrical signals, and a long fiber known as axon that carries signals for long distances. The nerve cell, which can be as fine as silk thread, can be as long as roughly 1 meter (3,2 feet). Signals sometimes must travel even greater distances along the nerves. 8

It’s fair to liken the body of the neuron to a telephone switchboard equipped with advanced technology. However, with its cellular dimensions varying between 0.004 and 0.1 millimeters (0.0001575 and 0.003937 of an inch) and wide-ranging communication mechanisms, this miniaturized telephone exchange has no equivalent in the modern world. In contrast to other cells, neurons contain both dendrites and axons, which give rise to lines of communication that permit the cell to pass its signals along to others. Dendrites receive messages, and axons send them.

A neuron can send an impulse in as little as 1/1,000 of a second. This means that a single neuron can transmit 1,000 nerve signals a second. In general, however, transmission may range between 10 and 500 impulses per second. 9 the largest and thickest nerve fibers transmit electricity at a speed of 152 meters (500 feet) per second, and the thinnest of them at about 1 meter (3 feet) a second. 10 Information is transmitted without impairment inside the neuron and forwarded to the correct destination in a most astonishing way. However, the speed at which these phenomena take place is no less astonishing.

Imagine that all the complex systems in your body exist, but that the data transmission in your nerve cells is slower than it actually is: Only hours after the event could you appreciate the beauty of a view, the taste of the food you ate, or that something you touched was hot enough to burn your fingers. You would need dozens of minutes to reply to a question put to you. Crossing from one side of the street to another, or driving, lifting a fork to your mouth, commenting on an article of clothing you like, and countless other forms of behavior could lengthen into situations seriously incompatible with your lifestyle, or which even endangered your life. Lapses in timing between an event you perceive and being able to speak might make life untenable. Furthermore, this example only considers actions that we undertake voluntarily. The body also performs activities outside our conscious control, such as the beating of the heart. Any slowing in the signals regarding these functions would have fatal consequences. However, through the blessing of our Lord, the Compassionate and Merciful, everything in the human body is just as it needs to be.

In one verse of the Qur’an it is revealed that God has created all things in their proper measure:

God knows what every female bears and every shrinking of the womb and every swelling. Everything has its measure with Him. (Surat ar-Rad, 8)

Dendrites and Axons: The Cables That Surround Our Bodies

Dendrites consist of a large number of short protrusions and are comparable to the roots of the cell. with their branched structure, dendrites receive reports arriving from other neurons and transmit these to the cell body. Put another way, dendrites are like electrical cables, transmitting signals entering the cell. Every neuron possesses up to 100,000 branching dendrites that carry incoming messages to the cell. 11

The axons generally bring information from sense receptors to the brain and spinal cord or transmit commands back to the muscles, glands and internal organs. An axon is a long fiber, generally consisting of a single protrusion, that emerges from the cell body and along which signals are sent. Individual axons are microscopic in diameter - typically about one micrometre across (1μm) - but may extend to macroscopic (>1mm) lengths. The longest axons in the human body, for example, are those of the sciatic nerve, which run from the base of the spine to the big toe of each foot. These single-cell fibers of the sciatic nerve may extend a meter or even longer. 12

Another striking feature is that a single axon is capable of dividing itself into as many as 10,000 terminals, or end sections. In this way, each terminal can be connected to a different neuron and can permit more than one region to be stimulated at the same time. Since any one single neuron can receive signals from more than 1,000 other neurons, it can carry a million different pieces of information at the same time 13 —an incredible figure. This ability plays a very important role in situations wherein more than one muscle fiber needs to be activated. with these structures, each nerve cell appears like a dense network consisting of long chains.

If the nerves did not have such a structure, then every signal would have to be transmitted in turn. That would slow and seriously impair the rapid, complex transfer of signals in the body.

We can compare the axon terminals at the end of dendrites to plugs fitting into sockets. Thus, in the same way that an electrical current flows from the socket to the plug, the electrical signal continues on between two nerve cells. These connection points at the axons’ ends are attached to receptors on other cells and permit information to transmit between cells. In the way they allow communication between different points in the nervous system, axons are comparable to the links connecting one part of an electrical circuit to another.

Each of these features is essential for our bodies’ communication and coordination. Our ability to lead healthy lives and our very existence depend on all these details functioning flawlessly. One of the aims behind their creation is to exhibit the knowledge and artistry of our Lord. Ours is the responsibility to appreciate the greatness of our Lord and give proper thanks:

... God pours out His favour on mankind but most people do not show thanks. That is God, your Lord, the Creator of everything. There is no god but Him—so how have you been perverted? (Surah Ghafir, 61-62)

The Role of the Synapses in Data Transmission

The gaps or spaces between the axons of two neurons are known as synapses. Communication between the two neurons is established and maintained at these terminal connection points. In the same way that a telephone switchboard permits a large number of callers to talk to one another at the same time, so a neuron can communicate with many other neurons by means of these synapses. Each neuron has around tens of thousands of synapses,14 meaning that a neuron can establish connections with tens of thousands of separate nerve cells. Even assuming that hundreds of millions of telephone conversations could be transmitted over a single telephone network at the same time, this capacity still lags far behind that of the human brain, which can effect 1 quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) communications by means of the synapse inside it. 15 Consider how hard-pressed one human being is when working on a 10-line telephone switchboard! You can better understand how a single nerve cell simultaneously carrying out 10,000 connections is evidence of an extraordinary creation.

A neuron collects incoming signals, decides if the total input message is strong enough, and permits its passage to another neuron.16 Synapses, the connection points between two neurons, control the distribution of this communication by determining the direction of the signals transmitted. 17 Triggering or inhibiting signals arrive from various regions of the nervous system, sometimes opening synapses and other times, closing them. In this way, synapses halt weak signals and permit strong ones to pass.

At the same time, they also provide a selective function by choosing and magnifying some of the weaker signals and passing them on—not in one single direction but in many. The way that neurons collect signals and decide to transmit them might lead you to assume they have something resembling conscious human intellect. However, this is accomplished merely by very specially arranged groups of molecules, with no ability to think, nor any organs that permit them to perceive. The ability of a group of molecules flawlessly discharging such vitally important responsibilities is a sign of God’s supervision and eternal dominion over living things.

It is God, Lord of the worlds, Who causes these impeccable processes to be carried out:

I have put my trust in God, my Lord and your Lord. There is no creature He does not hold by the forelock. My Lord is on a Straight Path. (Surah Hud, 56)

Synapses and Constant Electrical Current

Synapses, or the gaps between two nerve cells, are so small that they become visible only when magnified thousands of times. Yet this gap between two cells is also wide enough to prevent any electrical impulse’s leaping from one cell to another. Despite the billions of neurons in the nervous system, they never touch each other in any way. Therefore, from the point of view of the body’s electrical system, every synapse is an obstacle that must be overcome. Yet although they are separated from one another, no lapse is ever experienced in the body’s nerve network, because the signals transmitted electrically along the neurons continue across these spaces between them in chemical form.

Assume that an electrical signal—traveling at 354 kilometers (220 miles) per hour—reaches the end of the axon. 18 Where will this stimulus go? How will it get past the synapse to continue on its way? This situation is analogous to coming to a river as you drive along in a car. at this point one has to change vehicles. In the same way that you get out of the car to cross the river in a boat, the electrical signal continues on its journey in another form, that is, in chemical form. Thanks to this chemical communication in the synapses, electrical signals can continue their journeys without interruption.

When a signal reaches the axon terminal, it gives rise to a so-called “message packet” that jumps the small synapse between two neurons and carries chemicals to set the receptor nerves in the neighboring neuron dendrites into action. These messenger molecules, known as neurotransmitters, cross the gap and set the second neuron into action in less than a millisecond. 19 Neurotransmitters are produced in the body of the nerve cell, are carried along the axon and stored in synaptic vesicles in the axon terminals. Each vesicle contains some 5,000 transmitter molecules, 20 which chemicals function as trigger or preventive signals. They either impel neurons to produce an electrical impulse, or else prevent them from firing. 21

Recent research has shown that neurons can contain and release some 100 different types of neurotransmitters. 22 in other words, each neuron is like a chemical factory producing messengers to be employed in communications. Some neurotransmitters are employed in the triggering of electrical signals, others in the halting of electrical signals, and still others in acceleration or deceleration, in frequency-changing and energy storage. Each neuron releases only one or at most, a few different varieties of these neurotransmitters. When a neurotransmitter emerges, it crosses the synapse and the protein receptor on the receptive neuron’s cell membrane sets a protein into motion. at this point, synapses can be compared to a highway by which these chemical messengers are transmitted between nerve cells. The distance between them is approximately 0.00003 of a millimeter (118.10-8 of an inch). 23 Although this distance is very small, it is still a gap that the electrical signals must cross.

The amount of neurotransmitter released is much greater than what’s needed for attachment to the target dendrite. However, as in every other detail in the human body, this excess is an example of very wise creation. The extra neurotransmitters remaining in the synapse block the nerve to prevent the sending of excess signals. if these surplus molecules did not block the nerve, then the time needed for the signal to come to a stop would lengthen into seconds, even minutes. However, the signal transmission takes place in just a fraction of a second. The excess neurotransmitters are absorbed by the axon terminal, and the remainder decomposed by enzymes. 24 Just as in a relay race, electrical information is transmitted from cell to cell by means of neurotransmitters that serve as bridges. In this way, the flow of information continues uninterrupted, despite the gaps between the cell extensions.

Yet how do these two independent systems know that they must act together to perform this vital function? in addition, how is that there is no omission or delay in the information transmitted, and for data to be transmitted perfectly to its appropriate destination?

Each of these systems is no doubt a reflection of the knowledge and artistry of God. It flies in the face of logic and reason to expect these miraculous systems to have come into being spontaneously, or to maintain that unconscious cells engage in purposeful activities as the work of chance.

Chemical Messengers: Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters consist of complex organic chemicals, usually amino acids that enable electrical messages to traverse across the synaptic cleft. So far, over 100 different kinds have been identified. 25

Neurotransmitters are synthesized within the neurons. They are oscillated when a neuron becomes activated, triggering a specific process. Once they complete this process, the gap between two neurons, i.e. The synaptic cleft is cleared. 26 Observers of this process note that a flawless procedure is followed in the communication between neurons. In the absence of even a single step involved in the process, or the absence of any of the required chemicals, a variety of diseases could result.

Chemical messengers consist of two main categories: excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory messengers are released during the transmission of electrical signals between the neuron synapse. One of the chemicals used most frequently in the message transmission is acetylcholine. This chemical is vital for learning and memory, and a deficiency of it could lead to Alzheimer’s or other diseases, colloquially known as 'forgetfulness'. Alternatively, its excessive presence or activity could lead to Parkinson’s disease. Acetylcholine must be available for use at the exact time, and in the precise amount required to produce normal biological function.

Another excitatory neurotransmitter is serotonin. It is colloquially known as the ‘happiness hormone.’ Defects that occur during the deficient production or release of serotonin lead to disorders such as migraines, depression, and anxiety.

GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) neurotransmitters have inhibitory and sedative roles. for example, after our muscles have contracted, they require GABA to return to their resting state. Problems during the release of GABA can cause serious issues, such as muscle weakness and postural defects.

The neurotransmitters, whose new roles within the human body are being discovered every year, must have existed from the first day humanity was created. Any deficiency in their functionality typically leads to vital disorders. Claiming that these chemicals evolved consecutively over a long period of time is erroneous because in order for life to continue, they must both be present and fully functional.

The Structure of Neurons and Supercomputers

To perform logical processes, computers use electronic units called transistors. Their human brain equivalents are the neurons. Both in transistors and in neurons, electrical current must follow the proper channels to carry out necessary processes. However, compared to a neuron, a transistor is quite primitive.

Transistors are connected to other transistors in a fixed position. Each transistor has only 3 different connections. Neurons, on the other hand, establish thousands of connections with other nearby neurons. Over time, these connections become either stronger or weaker. as opposed to the fixed processor structure of the computers, humans have a structure that is flexible and allows for establishing new connections at any time. This flexibility is what makes learning possible.

The following example compares neurons to man-made transistors: Each neuron resembles a computer with an enormous processing capacity. When they are assembled they form a supercomputer called the brain. at the time this book is being updated for a new edition (as of December 2016) the fastest known "supercomputer" is located in China named "Sunway TaihuLight." This supercomputer is the first of its kind said to reach the estimated processing capacity of the human brain. 27

However, compared to the average brain volume of 1.4cm3 28 , it has a volume of 2 billion cm3. 29 in other words, 1.5 billion human brains could fit into the space that the supercomputer requires.

The human brain is superior in terms of energy consumption as well. The Chinese supercomputer consumes 16mW 30 of energy, which is 400,000 times more than that is used by the human nervous system.

Even with their years’ of experience, and ongoing research involving thousands of scientists they were only able to imitate one attribute of the human brain, albeit in a primitive way. of course, more successful and powerful imitations of neurotransmitters may be developed in the future. However, the supercomputer development history provides clear evidence that the human brain could not have come into existence by Darwinian mechanisms.

It is impossible for molecules that do not possess the ability to think, and have no way to keep records and conduct research, to come together and form living structures. Furthermore, it has so far not been possible to produce a supercomputer with the ability to think that fits into a mere 1 liter volume skull. Despite the collective knowledge and experience accumulated over years, scientists were only able to develop a machine that is a crude imitation 2 billion times larger and consuming 400,000 times more electricity than the human brain.

Synaptic Transistors That Imitate Neurons

The body uses the electricity in the nervous system in an incredibly efficient way. by imitating this structure, scientists aim to reduce worldwide energy consumption by a factor of hundreds of thousands of times. 31

In addition to being energy-efficient, neurons also have the ability to change the path of the electrical current when they sustain damage so as to alleviate the effects of the damage over time. by contrast, when transistors malfunction, the computer processor often is irreparably damaged. The ongoing research on synaptic transistors aims to imitate this repairing attribute of the brain. Machines that can self-repair damage and learn by establishing new connections as does the human brain, will be a major scientific and technological breakthrough.

In any case, it is not a coincidence that humans have nervous systems that possess these attributes, and many more, from the moment they came into existence. While imitating the flawless structures of humans, scientists base their work on the example of God's creation.

The Nervous System’s Complex Structure is One of the Signs of Our Lord’s Artistry and Knowledge

Until recently it was thought that communication between neurons was established at fixed points. Professor Eric R. Kandel won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery that the shape of the synapses changes according to the structure of the chemical messengers. He found that synapses possess a mechanism that regulates their forms depending on the strength of the signal. for example, in the case of a powerful signal, the synapse grows and permits this signal to be transmitted to other cells with no loss of strength, and in the most effective manner.

The discovery of this ability in the synapses was made through experiments on marine crustaceans. Professor Kandel states that the nervous system in human beings is too complex to allow the possibility of research.1 One of his statements refers to the complexity of the nervous system in these terms:

The key principle that guides our work is that the mind is a set of operations carried out by the brain, an astonishingly complex computational device that constructs our perception of the external world, fixes our attention, and controls our actions.2

1. www.wsws.org/articles/2000/oct2000/nob-o26.shtml

2. Eric R. Kandel’s speech at the Nobel Banquet, Dec 10, 2000; http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2000/kandel-speech.html
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2000/kandel-speech.html

Neurons: Another Example That Places the Theory of Evolution in an Impasse

Nerve cells pervade our bodies like a network of computers connected to one another by cables—the most economical and effective way of electronic communication. A similar, uninterrupted flow of information takes place in the body’s nervous system. at every moment, the electrical signals transmitted along the nerves carry countless commands and stimuli between the brain and the various organs.

However, nerve cells do not resemble lengthy cables stretching from one end of the body to the other. They are joined to one another, end to end although there are gaps or synapses between them. but how does the electrical current cross from one nerve to another? and how is an uninterrupted exchange of data carried out?

At this stage, a very complex chemical system enters the equation. Nerve cells receive and forward messages by means of the connections known as synapses, and at these points, the neurons exchange chemical signals. In this special fluid between the nerve cells are a number of very specialized enzymes that possess extraordinary properties, such as electron bearing.

When the electrical signal reaches the end of one nerve, electrons are loaded onto these enzymes. The enzymes cross the liquid between the nerves, carrying the electrons they bear to the next nerve. In this way, the electrical current continues to flow, moving on to the next nerve cell. This process takes place in a very short time, with the electrical current suffering not the slightest interruption.

Most of the time, we are completely unaware of what is going on inside our bodies. This system functions flawlessly without requiring us to think about it, requiring a large number of components to work together in harmony. All these details are just a small portion of the many examples that place the theory of evolution in a complete impasse.

The Uninterrupted Communications Network in the Body

Neurons perform communication in the body by means of a unique method, involving electrical and chemical processes of extraordinary complexity. In this way is established a flawless coordination, both inside the brain and between the brain and the other organs. While you perform movements that appear exceedingly ordinary—such as holding this book in your hand, turning its pages or casting your eyes over the words— a dense communications traffic takes place in your body’s nerve cells. The more closely one examines the neural network that gives rise to this extraordinary communications, the better their miraculous creation can be understood.

The way the nerve cells establish uninterrupted communications, even without touching one another, is of the greatest importance in maintaining the body’s functions. When you look at this book, for example, if the signals belonging to the image remained in the first nerve cells in your retina and never reached your visual center at the rear of the brain, then you would never perceive any images of the external world. However, we do perceive images, uninterruptedly and with no gaps between them, as a result of God’s compassion.

Cells That Produce Their Own Energy

As you have already seen, your body functions with electricity. However, in contrast to the other electrical systems we are accustomed to seeing, your body takes in no electricity from the outside.

Consider any electrical device. In order for it to function, it requires an electrical current provided from some outside source, or else to be by means of batteries. Otherwise, in the absence of electrical energy, even the most advanced machine will serve no purpose. but in contrast your body creates the very energy it needs. Trillions of cells produce—and use—electricity in order for life to continue.

Every cell is like a miniaturized battery that permits the body to function as a whole. Surrounding the cell is a liquid rich in potassium, and the inside is full of liquid high in sodium. When you mix potassium and sodium, the two chemicals react and an electricity emerges as a side product. This is analogous to a car battery’s producing electricity when sulfuric acid and lead come in contact. In much the same way that radios, music players, flashlights, clocks and appliances work with energy they obtain from batteries, no car can operate without the energy stored in its battery. and both household and car batteries use chemical energy to produce electrical currents of various strengths.

Electricity used by the body is termed bioelectricity, the cellular exchange of negatively and positively charged particles known as ions. for example, when potassium is released outside the cell membrane and is replaced by sodium, a small electrical current develops; the potassium is sent inside the cell and sodium outside. According to a statement by Lendon H. Smith, M.D., a pediatrician and one of the best-known experts on health and nutrition; “In this way the cells act as tiny batteries with their own electromagnetic current.” 32

Electrolyte Balance

Sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine and other minerals that generate electrical currents via biochemical reactions are called electrolytes. These minerals must be maintained at right levels for the continuation of life, because electrolyte balance, in other words the homeostasis, is crucial for the systems in the body.

The electrolyte balance may change due to eating habits, liquid intake and various diseases. The control systems and hormones within our body quickly compensate for these fluctuations to maintain homeostasis.

However, when the balance is disturbed due to health or other problems, nervous system-related problems can occur such as dizziness, extreme fatigue, seizures and fainting.

The heart also works on electricity. Therefore, any disturbance of the balance will cause problems like arrhythmia and chest pains. and unless the balance is restored, the heart will stop.

Similarly, the contraction of our muscles is caused by the potential difference generated by the electrical system of the body. Therefore, any disturbance of this balance will lead to sudden muscle weakness. 34

The electricity that reaches our houses is stabilized through generators, transformers and filters. Numerous systems are in place to provide constant feedback to the command center to maintain the required levels. In a similar fashion, the electrolyte balance in our bodies is constantly monitored and maintained. However, the electrical system of the human body is incomparably more complex and sensitive than any power grid.

If humans had to regulate the electrical balance of the body, the job would have to be done on a constant basis without any time even for sleep. Electrolyte balance of every single cell would have to be checked all the time, and any problems would have to be eliminated by immediate production of the right hormones. It is clear that no person is capable of such a task.

The Cell Membrane’s Special Design for Electricity Production

It is electrical current that makes the lights in your home shine so brightly—a current that consists of the movement of electrons. The electricity in your cells, on the other hand, is carried by ions—electrically charged atoms or molecules. During the movement of ions, cells produce electricity from potential energy that is ready to be used. Similarly, the water in a dam produces electricity by passing through a hydroelectric station.

In cells, electricity is produced in this way: In all cells, there is a voltage difference in electrical charge along the cell membrane. This voltage difference causes the formation of what’s referred to as electrical potential. This electrical potential in the cell membrane is known as resting potential, whose level is approximately 50 millivolts.

All cells use this potential energy to carry out activities inside themselves. but nerve and muscle cells also use this same energy for physiological tasks. Thanks to this current, contraction takes place in muscle cells, and this same current permits signals to be transmitted by nerve cells.

In the cell membrane, there are channels that permit only certain ions to pass through. by means of these channels, ions are sent inside or outside the cell. with the movement of positively or negatively charged particles, an electrical imbalance arises between the inside and the outside of the cell. This difference between the intra- and extracellular fluids produces a flow of ions until equilibrium is re-established. The cell membrane, which separates the protoplasm inside the cell from the outside environment, has a semi-permeable structure that permits certain ions to pass through, while obstructing others. Therefore, when the cell feels the need for electricity, it opens one of these channels in order to complete the electrical circuit.

The channels in the cell membrane function like security personnel, allowing certain ions to pass and blocking the passage of others, which are actions requiring purposeful intelligence. There is no random passage here, but on the contrary, a mechanism of conscious selection. No doubt that it is impossible for insentient collections of molecules to undertake such responsibilities of their own accord. All this points to a fact that evolutionists deny: intelligent creation.

There is a perfect equilibrium established by the positively electrically charged atoms—in other words ions—inside the neuron, or nerve cell. The ions that assume important responsibilities in neurons are potassium and sodium, each with one positive charge, calcium with two positive charges, and chloride ions with one negative charge. at rest, the neuron is negatively charged, with negatively charged proteins and various ions present inside the nerve cell. There are more potassium ions inside the neuron than there are outside it, and fewer chloride and sodium ions. The equilibrium of the ions inside the cell has been arranged in such a way as to serve the specific purpose of transmitting electrical current and signals.

The message that arrives as an electrical signal, and is deposited at the receptors in the membrane of the receiving cell, initiates a series of processes inside the cell that is highly reminiscent of a row of dominoes. These processes, take place one after the other in a flawless order, leading to the opening of specific channels in the cell membrane. Thus the sodium ions taken into the cell, with its initial negative charge (of -70 millivolts), lead it to assume a neutral charge. The transfer of ions between the exterior and interior of the cell then produces a new electrical signal. The nerve cell that forwards the message—and has thus discharged its duty—returns to the resting position. This passage takes place with the opening and closing of the sodium and potassium channels in less than one thousandth of a second.


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